Easy domain and Hosting

Permanent short link for Go Daddy.com Just ez2.me
Spring Savings! $7.99 .com
Next time for Go Daddy: Easy to you just www.ez2.me Dadicated link for Go Daddy.com Just ez2.me

Saturday, May 15, 2010


The Parthenon (Ancient Greek: Παρθενών) is a temple of the Greek goddess Athena, whom the people of Athens considered their protector. Its construction began in 447 BC and was completed in 438 BC on the Athenian Acropolis, although decorations of the Parthenon continued until 431 BC. It is the most important surviving building of Classical Greece, generally considered to be the culmination of the development of the Doric order. Its decorative sculptures are considered some of the high points of Greek art. The Parthenon is regarded as an enduring symbol of Ancient Greece and of Athenian democracy and one of the world's greatest cultural monuments. The Greek Ministry of Culture is currently carrying out a program of selective restoration and reconstruction to ensure the stability of the partially ruined structure.
The Parthenon itself replaced an older temple of Athena, which historians call the Pre-Parthenon or Older Parthenon, that was destroyed in the Persian invasion of 480 BC. Like most Greek temples, the Parthenon was used as a treasury. For a time, it served as the treasury of the Delian League, which later became the Athenian Empire. In the 6th century AD, the Parthenon was converted into a Christian church dedicated to the Virgin Mary. After the Ottoman Turk conquest, it was turned into a mosque in the early 1460s, and it had a minaret built in it. On 26 September 1687, an Ottoman Turk ammunition dump inside the building was ignited by Venetian bombardment. The resulting explosion severely damaged the Parthenon and its sculptures. In 1806, Thomas Bruce, 7th Earl of Elgin removed some of the surviving sculptures, with Ottoman Turk's permission. These sculptures, now known as the Elgin Marbles or the Parthenon Marbles, were sold in 1816 to the British Museum in London, where they are now displayed. The Greek government is committed to the return of the sculptures to Greece, so far with no success.

Design and construction

Floor plan of the Parthenon
The first endeavor to build a sanctuary for Athena Parthenos on the site of the present Parthenon was begun shortly after the Battle of Marathon (c. 490-488 BC) upon a muscular limestone foundation that extended and leveled the southern part of the Acropolis summit. This building replaced a hekatompedon (meaning "hundred-footer") and would have stood beside the archaic temple dedicated to the Athena Polias. The Older or Pre-Parthenon, as it is frequently referred to, was still under construction when the Persians sacked the city in 480 BC and razed the Acropolis.
In the mid-5th century BC, when the Athenian Acropolis became the seat of the Delian League and Athens was the greatest cultural centre of its time, Pericles initiated an ambitious building project that lasted the entire second half of the century. The most important buildings visible on the Acropolis today—the Parthenon, the Propylaia, the Erechtheion and the temple of Athena Nike—were erected during this period. The Parthenon was built under the general supervision of the sculptor Phidias, who also had charge of the sculptural decoration. The architects, Iktinos and Kallikrates, began in 447 BC, and the building was substantially completed by 432, but work on the decorations continued until at least 431. Some of the financial accounts for the Parthenon survive and show that the largest single expense was transporting the stone from Mount Pentelicus, about 16 kilometres from Athens, to the Acropolis. The funds were partly drawn from the treasury of the Delian League, which was moved from the Panhellenic sanctuary at Delos to the Acropolis in 454 BC.
Although the nearby Temple of Hephaestus is the most complete surviving example of a Doric order temple, the Parthenon, in its day, was regarded as the finest. The temple, wrote John Julius Cooper, "Enjoys the reputation of being the most perfect Doric temple ever built. Even in antiquity, its architectural refinements were legendary, especially the subtle correspondence between the curvature of the stylobate, the taper of the naos walls and the entasis of the columns."Entasis refers to the slight bulge of the columns as they rise, though the observable effect on the Parthenon is considerably more subtle than on earlier temples with their noticeably cigar-shaped columns. The stylobate is the platform on which the columns stand. As in many other classical Greek temples, it has a slight parabolic upward curvature intended primarily to shed rainwater. The columns might therefore be supposed to lean outwards, but they actually lean slightly inwards; since they are all the same height, the curvature of the outer stylobate edge is transmitted to the architrave and roof above: "All follow the rule of being built to delicate curves," Gorham Stevens observed when pointing out that, in addition, the west front was built at a slightly higher level than that of the east front. It is not universally agreed what the intended effect of these "optical refinements" was; it may serve as a sort of "reverse optical illusion". As the Greeks may have been aware, two parallel lines appear to bow, or curve outward, when intersected by converging lines. In this case, the ceiling and floor of the temple may seem to bow in the presence of the surrounding angles of the building. Striving for perfection, the designers may have added these curves, compensating for the illusion by creating their own curves, thus negating this effect and allowing the temple to be seen as they intended. It is also suggested that it was to enliven what might have appeared an inert mass in the case of a building without curves, but the comparison ought to be with the Parthenon's more obviously curved predecessors than with a notional rectilinear temple.
Some studies of the Acropolis, including the Parthenon, conclude that many of its proportions approximate the golden ratio. The Parthenon's facade as well as elements of its facade and elsewhere can be circumscribed by golden rectangles. This view that the golden ratio was employed in the design has been disputed in more recent studies.
Measured at the stylobate, the dimensions of the base of the Parthenon are 69.5 metres by 30.9 metres (228.0 x 101.4 ft). The cella was 29.8 metres long by 19.2 metres wide (97.8 x 63.0 ft), with internal colonnades in two tiers, structurally necessary to support the roof. On the exterior, the Doric columns measure 1.9 metres (6.2 ft) in diameter and are 10.4 metres (34.1 ft) high. The corner columns are slightly larger in diameter. The Parthenon had 46 outer pillars and 19 inner pillars in total. The stylobate has an upward curvature towards its centre of 60 millimetres (2.36 in) on the east and west ends, and of 110 millimetres (4.33 in) on the sides. The roof was covered with large overlapping marble tiles known as imbrices and tegulae.

Sculptural decoration

The Parthenon from the south. In the foreground of the image, a reconstruction of the marble imbrices and tegulae (roof tiles) forming the roof is visible, resting on wooden supports.
The Parthenon, an octostyle, peripteral Doric temple with Ionic architectural features, housed the chryselephantine statue of Athena Parthenos sculpted by Phidias and dedicated in 439 or 438 BC. The decorative stonework was originally highly coloured. The temple was dedicated to Athena at that time, though construction continued until almost the beginning of the Peloponnesian War in 432. By the year 438, the sculptural decoration of the Doric metopes on the frieze above the exterior colonnade, and of the Ionic frieze around the upper portion of the walls of the cella, had been completed. The richness of the Parthenon's frieze and metope decoration is in agreement with the function of the temple as a treasury. In the opisthodomus (the back room of the cella) were stored the monetary contributions of the Delian League, of which Athens was the leading member.

Metopes of the Parthenon

Detail of the West metopes, illustrating the current condition of the temple in detail after 2,500 years of war, pollution, erratic conservation, pillage and vandalism
The seventy-two metopes were carved in high relief, a practice employed until then only in treasuries (buildings used to keep votive gifts to the gods). According to the building records, the metope sculptures date to the years 446-440 BC. Their design is attributed to the sculptor Kalamis. The metopes of the east side of the Parthenon, above the main entrance, depict the Gigantomachy (mythical battles between the Olympian gods and the Giants). The metopes of the west end show Amazonomachy (mythical battle of the Athenians against the Amazons). The metopes of the south side—with the exception of the somewhat problematic metopes 13–20, now lost—show the Thessalian Centauromachy (battle of the Lapiths aided by Theseus against the half-man, half-horse Centaurs). On the north side of the Parthenon, the metopes are poorly preserved, but the subject seems to be the sack of Troy.
The metopes present surviving traces of the Severe Style in the anatomy of the figures' heads, in the limitation of the corporal movements to the contours and not to the muscles, and in the presence of pronounced veins in the figures of the Centauromachy. Several of the metopes still remain on the building, but, with the exception of those on the northern side, they are severely damaged. Some of them are located at the Acropolis Museum, others are in the British Museum, and one can be seen at the Louvre museum.
The smaller room (the opisthodomos) was used as treasury. The Parthenon was made out of Doric columns.


Phidias Showing the Frieze of the Parthenon to his Friends, 1868 painting by Lawrence Alma-Tadema
The most characteristic feature in the architecture and decoration of the temple is the Ionic frieze running around the exterior walls of the cella. The bas-relief frieze was carved in situ; it is dated in 442 BC-438 BC.
One interpretation is that it depicts an idealized version of the Panathenaic procession from the Dipylon Gate in the Kerameikos to the Acropolis. In this procession held every year, with a special procession taking place every four years, Athenians and foreigners were participating to honour the goddess Athena, offering sacrifices and a new peplos (dress woven by selected noble Athenian girls called ergastines).
Joan Breton Connelly has recently argued for another interpretation of the frieze, in which she attempts to prove that the iconography of the frieze is based on Greek mythology. This interpretation postulates that the scenes depict the sacrifice of Pandora, youngest daughter of Erechtheus, to Athena. This human sacrifice was demanded by Athena to save the city from Eumolpus, king of Eleusis, who had gathered an army to attack Athens.

The 2nd-century traveller Pausanias, when he visited the Acropolis at the end of the second century AD, only mentioned briefly the sculptures of the pediments (gable ends) of the temple, reserving the majority of his description for the gold and ivory statue of the goddess inside.

East pediment

Part of the east pediment still found on the Parthenon
The east pediment narrates the birth of Athena from the head of her father, Zeus. According to Greek mythology, Zeus gave birth to Athena after a terrible headache prompted him to summon Hephaestus' (the god of fire and the forge) assistance. To alleviate the pain, he ordered Hephaestus to strike him with his forging hammer, and when he did, Zeus's head split open and out popped the goddess Athena in full armour. The sculptural arrangement depicts the moment of Athena's birth.
Unfortunately, the center pieces of the pediment were destroyed even before Jacques Carrey created otherwise useful documentary drawings in 1674, so all reconstructions are subject to conjecture and speculation. The main Olympian gods must have stood around Zeus and Athena watching the wondrous event, with Hephaestus and Hera probably near them. The Carrey drawings are instrumental in reconstructing the sculptural arrangement beyond the center figures to the north and south.

West pediment
The west pediment faced the Propylaia and depicted the contest between Athena and Poseidon during their competition for the honor of becoming the city's patron. Athena and Poseidon appear at the center of the composition, diverging from one another in strong diagonal forms, with the goddess holding the olive tree and the god of the sea raising his trident to strike the earth. At their flanks, they are framed by two active groups of horses pulling chariots, while a crowd of legendary personalities from Athenian mythology fills the space out to the acute corners of the pediment.
The work on the pediments lasted from 438 to 432 BC, and the sculptures of the Parthenon pediments are some of the finest examples of classical Greek art. The figures are sculpted in natural movement with bodies full of vital energy that bursts through their flesh, as the flesh in turn bursts through their thin clothing. The thin chitons allow the body underneath to be revealed as the focus of the composition. The distinction between gods and humans is blurred in the conceptual interplay between the idealism and naturalism bestowed on the stone by the sculptors. The pediments no longer exist.

Athena Parthenos

The only piece of sculpture from the Parthenon known to be from the hand of Phidias was the statue of Athena housed in the naos. This massive chryselephantine sculpture is now lost and known only from copies, vase painting, gems, literary descriptions and coins.

Older Parthenon

The first endeavour to build a sanctuary for Athena Parthenos on the site of the present Parthenon was begun shortly after the Battle of Marathon (c. 490-88 BC). This building replaced a hekatompedon (meaning "hundred-footer") and would have stood beside the archaic temple dedicated to Athena Polias. The “older Parthenon”, as it is frequently referred to, was still under construction when the Persians sacked the city in 480 BC and razed the Acropolis. The existence of the proto-Parthenon and its destruction were known from Herodotus,[27] and the drums of its columns were plainly visible built into the curtain wall north of the Erechtheum. Further material evidence of this structure was revealed with the excavations of Patagiotis Kavvadias of 1885-90. The findings of this dig allowed Wilhelm Dörpfeld, then director of the German Archaeological Institute, to assert that there existed a distinct substructure to the original Parthenon, called Parthenon I by Dörpfeld, not immediately below the present edifice as had been previously assumed.[28] Dörpfeld's observation was that the three steps of the first Parthenon consisted of two steps of Poros limestone, the same as the foundations, and a top step of Karrha limestone that was covered by the lowest step of the Periclean Parthenon. This platform was smaller and slightly to the north of the final Parthenon, indicating that it was built for a wholly different building, now wholly covered over. This picture was somewhat complicated by the publication of the final report on the 1885-90 excavations, indicating that the substructure was contemporary with the Kimonian walls, and implying a later date for the first temple.
If the original Parthenon was indeed destroyed in 480, it invites the question of why the site was left a ruin for thirty-three years. One argument involves the oath sworn by the Greek allies before the Battle of Plataea in 479 BC[30] declaring that the sanctuaries destroyed by the Persians would not be rebuilt, an oath from which the Athenians were only absolved with the Peace of Callias in 450. The mundane fact of the cost of reconstructing Athens after the Persian sack is at least as likely a cause. However, the excavations of Bert Hodge Hill led him to propose the existence of a second Parthenon, begun in the period of Kimon after 468 BC. Hill claimed that the Karrha limestone step Dörpfeld took to be the highest of Parthenon I was in fact the lowest of the three steps of Parthenon II, whose stylobate dimensions Hill calculated to be 23.51 by 66.888 metres (77.13 ft × 219.45 ft).
One difficulty in dating the proto-Parthenon is that at the time of the 1885 excavation the archaeological method of seriation was not fully developed; the careless digging and refilling of the site led to a loss of much valuable information. An attempt to make sense of the potsherds found on the acropolis came with the two-volume study by Graef and Langlotz published 1925-33. This inspired American archaeologist William Bell Dinsmoor to attempt to supply limiting dates for the temple platform and the five walls hidden under the re-terracing of the Acropolis. Dinsmoor concluded that the latest possible date for Parthenon I was no earlier 495 BC, contradicting the early date given by Dörpfeld. Further Dinsmoor denied that there were two proto-Parthenons, and that the only pre-Periclean temple was what Dörpfeld referred to as Parthenon II. Dinsmoor and Dörpfeld exchanged views in the American Journal of Archaeology in 1935.


Although the Parthenon is architecturally a temple and is usually called so, it is not really one in the conventional sense of the word.[36] A small shrine has been excavated within the building, on the site of an older sanctuary probably dedicated to Athena Ergane,[36] but the Parthenon never hosted the cult of Athena Polias, protector of Athens: the cult image which was bathed in the sea and to which was presented the peplos, was an olivewood xoanon, located at an older altar on the northern side of the Acropolis. Thus the Parthenon was essentially a treasury as well.
The colossal statue of Athena by Phidias was not related to any cult and never inspired any recorded religious fervour. It did not seem to have any priestess, altar nor cult name. According to Thucydides, Pericles once referred to the statue as a gold reserve, stressing that it "contained forty talents of pure gold and it was all removable". The Athenian statesman thus implies that the metal, obtained from contemporary coinage, could be used again without any impiety.
The Parthenon should then be viewed as a grand setting for the votive statue of Phidias rather than a cult site. It also served as a treasury: the funds of the Delian League, transferred from Delos to Athens in 454 BC, were housed in one of its rooms.

Later history

Christian church
The Parthenon survived as a temple to Athena for close to a thousand years. It was certainly still intact in the 4th century AD, by which time it was already as old as Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris is now, and far older than St. Peter's Basilica in Rome. But by that time Athens had been reduced to a provincial city of the Roman Empire, albeit one with a glorious past. Sometime in the 5th century AD, the great cult image of Athena was looted by one of the Emperors, and taken to Constantinople, where it was later destroyed, possibly during the siege of Constantinople during the Fourth Crusade in 1204 AD.

The Parthenon's position on the Acropolis allows it to dominate the city skyline of Athens.
Shortly after this, the Parthenon was converted to a Christian church. In Byzantine times it became the Church of the Parthenos Maria (Virgin Mary), or the Church of the Theotokos (Mother of God). It was the fourth most important pilgrimage in the Eastern Roman Empire after Constantinople, Ephessos and Thessalonica. In 1018, the emperor Basil II went on a pilgrimage to Athens directly after his final victory over the Bulgarians for the sole purpose of worshipping at the Parthenon. In medieval Greek accounts it called the Temple of Theotokos Atheniotissa and often indirectly referred to, as famous without explaining which temple they were referring to precisely, thus establishing that it was indeed well known.
At the time of the Latin occupation it became for about 250 years a Roman Catholic Church of Our Lady. The conversion of the temple to a church involved removing the internal columns and some of the walls of the cella, and the creation of an apse at the eastern end. This inevitably led to the removal and dispersal of some of the sculptures. Those depicting gods were either possibly re-interpreted according to a Christian theme, or removed and destroyed.

Ottoman mosque
In 1456, Athens fell to the Ottomans, and the Parthenon was converted again, into a mosque. The Ottomans were respectful of ancient monuments in their territories and did not willfully destroy the antiquities of Athens, but at the same time made no special effort to protect them. In times of war they were willing to demolish them to provide materials for walls and fortifications. A minaret was added to the Parthenon, and its base and stairway are still functional, leading up as high as the architrave and hence invisible from the outside. Otherwise, the Ottomans did not further modify the building. European visitors in the 17th century, as well as some representations of the Acropolis hill, testified that the building was largely intact.


The southern side of the Parthenon, which sustained considerable damage in the 1687 explosion

Fragment of an exploded shell found on top of a wall in the Parthenon, thought to originate from the time of the Venetian siege
In 1687, the Parthenon suffered its greatest blow when the Venetians under Francesco Morosini attacked Athens, and the Ottoman Turks fortified the Acropolis and used the building as a gunpowder magazine. On 26 September a Venetian mortar, fired from the Hill of Philopappus, blew the magazine up and the building was partly destroyed. Morosini then proceeded to attempt to loot sculptures from the ruin. The internal structures were demolished, whatever was left of the roof collapsed, and some of the pillars, particularly on the southern side, were decapitated. The sculptures suffered heavily. Many fell to the ground, and souvenirs were later made from their pieces. Consequently some sections of the sculptural decoration are known only from the drawings made by Flemish artist Jacques Carrey in 1674. After this, much of the building fell into disuse and a smaller mosque was erected.
The 18th century was a period of Ottoman Turk stagnation; as a result, many more Europeans found access to Athens, and the picturesque ruins of the Parthenon were much drawn and painted, spurring a rise in philhellenism and helping to arouse sympathy in Britain and France for Greek independence. Amongst those early travellers and archaeologists were James Stuart and Nicholas Revett, who were commissioned by the Society of Dilettanti to survey the ruins of classical Athens. What they produced was the first measured drawings of the Parthenon published in 1787 in the second volume of Antiquities of Athens Measured and Delineated. In 1801, the British Ambassador at Constantinople, the Earl of Elgin, obtained a firman (edict) from the Sultan to make casts and drawings of the antiquities on the Acropolis, to demolish recent buildings if this was necessary to view the antiquities, and to remove sculptures from them. Although the existence of the firman is doubtful, as the original document has not been rescued, he took this as permission to collect all the sculptures he could find. He employed local people to detach them from the building itself; a few others he collected from the ground, and some smaller pieces he bought from local people. The detachment of the sculptures caused further irreparable damage to what was left of the building, as some of the frieze blocks were sawn in half to lessen their weight for shipment to England.

Independent Greece
When independent Greece gained control of Athens in 1832, the visible section of the minaret was demolished from the Parthenon, and soon all the medieval and Ottoman buildings on the Acropolis were destroyed. However the image of the small mosque within the Parthenon's cella has been preserved in Joly de Lotbinière's photograph, published in Lerebours's Excursions Daguerriennes in 1842: the first photograph of the Acropolis.The area became a historical precinct controlled by the Greek government. Today it attracts millions of tourists every year, who travel up the path at the western end of the Acropolis, through the restored Propylaea, and up the Panathenaic Way to the Parthenon, which is surrounded by a low fence to prevent damage.

Dispute over the marbles

Life-size pediment sculptures from the Parthenon in the British Museum
Today, the Parthenon Marbles which were removed by the Earl of Elgin are in the British Museum. Other sculptures from the Parthenon are now in the Louvre in Paris, in Copenhagen, and elsewhere, but most of the remainder are in Athens in the new Acropolis Museum, that was opened officially on Saturday, June 20, 2009. A few can still be seen on the building itself. The Greek government has been campaigning since 1983 for the British Museum sculptures to be returned to Greece. The British Museum has steadfastly refused to return the sculptures,and successive British governments have been unwilling to force the Museum to do so (which would require legislation). Nevertheless, talks between senior representatives from Greek and British cultural ministries, and their legal advisors took place in London on 4 May 2007. These were the first serious negotiations for several years, and there are hopes that the two sides may move a step closer to a resolution.


A reconstructed segment of the Parthenon.
In 1975, the Greek government began a concerted effort to restore the Parthenon and other Acropolis structures. After some delay a Committee for the Conservation of the Acropolis Monuments was established in 1983. The project later attracted funding and technical assistance from the European Union. An archaeological committee thoroughly documented every artifact remaining on the site, and architects assisted with computer models to determine their original locations. Particularly important and fragile sculptures were transferred to the Acropolis Museum. A crane was installed for moving marble blocks; the crane was designed to fold away beneath the roofline when not in use. In some cases, prior re-construction was found to be incorrect. These were dismantled, and a careful process of restoration began.Originally, various blocks were held together by elongated iron H pins that were completely coated in lead, which protected the iron from corrosion. Stabilizing pins added in the 19th century were not so coated, and corroded. Since the corrosion product (rust) is expansive, the expansion caused further damage by cracking the marble. All new metalwork uses titanium, a strong, light, and corrosion resistant material.
The Parthenon will not be restored to a pre-1687 state, but the explosion damage will be mitigated as much as possible, both in the interest of restoring the structural integrity of the edifice (important in this earthquake-prone region) and to restore the aesthetic integrity by filling in chipped sections of column drums and lintels, using precisely sculpted marble cemented in place. New Pentelic marble is being used from the original quarry. Ultimately, almost all major pieces of marble will be placed in the structure where they originally would have been, supported as needed by modern materials.

Preakness Stakes

The Preakness Stakes is an American Grade I stakes race 1-3/16 mile (1.91 km) thoroughbred horse race for three-year-old horses, held on the third Saturday in May each year at Pimlico Race Course in Baltimore, Maryland. Colts and geldings carry 126 pounds (57 kg); fillies 121 lb (55 kg). The Preakness Stakes has been termed "The Run for the Black-Eyed Susans" because a blanket of Black-eyed Susans (Rudbeckia hirta, the state flower of Maryland) is traditionally placed around the winner's neck. The attendance at the Preakness Stakes ranks second in North America and usually surpasses the attendance of all other stakes races including the Belmont Stakes, the Breeders' Cup and the Kentucky Oaks. The attendance of the Preakness Stakes typically only trails the Kentucky Derby, for more information see American Thoroughbred Racing top Attended Events.


Two years before the Kentucky Derby was run for the first time, Pimlico introduced its new stakes race for three-year-olds, the Preakness, during its first-ever spring race meet in 1873. Former Maryland Governor Oden Bowie named the then mile and one-half (2.41 km) race in honor of the colt Preakness from Milton Holbrook Sanford's Preakness Stables in Preakness, Wayne Township, New Jersey, who won the Dinner Party Stakes on the day Pimlico opened (October 25, 1870). The New Jersey name was said to have come from the Native American name Pra-qua-les ("Quail Woods") for the area.
The first Preakness, held on May 27, 1873, drew seven starters. John Chamberlain's three-year-old, My Sheba, collected the $2,050 winning purse by galloping home easily by 10 lengths. This was the largest margin of victory until 2004, when Smarty Jones won by 11 lengths.
In 1889, George "Spider" Anderson became the first African-American jockey to win the Preakness. In 1890 Morris Park Racecourse in the Bronx, New York hosted the Preakness Stakes after which there was no race run for three years. For the 15 years from 1894 through 1908, the race was held at Gravesend Race Track on Coney Island, New York. In 1909 it returned to Pimlico.
In March 2009 Magna Entertainment Corp., which owns Pimlico, filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy thus throwing open the possibility the Stakes could move again. On April 13, 2009, the Maryland Legislature approved a plan to buy the Stakes and the Pimlico course if Magna Entertainment cannot find a buyer.
[edit]Evolution of the Triple Crown series
The Preakness is the second leg in American thoroughbred racing's Triple Crown series and almost always attracts the Kentucky Derby winner, some of the other horses that ran in the Derby, and often a few horses that did not start in the Derby. The Preakness is 1 3/16 miles, or 9 1/2 furlongs, compared to the Kentucky Derby, which is 1 1/4 miles. It is followed by the third leg, the Belmont Stakes, which is 1 1/2 miles.
Since 1931, the order of Triple Crown races has the Kentucky Derby first, followed by the Preakness Stakes and then the Belmont Stakes. Prior to 1931, the Preakness was run before the Derby eleven times. On May 12, 1917 and again on May 13, 1922, the Preakness and the Derby were run on the same day.

Running the race

Just after the horses for the Preakness are called to the post, the audience is invited to sing "Maryland, My Maryland," the official state song of Maryland. Traditionally, the United States Naval Academy Glee Club assembles in the Pimlico infield to lead the song.

Sir Barton, winner in 1919
As soon as the Preakness winner has been declared official, a painter climbs a ladder to the top of a replica of the Old Clubhouse cupola. The colors of the victorious owner's silks are applied on the jockey and horse that are part of the weather vane atop the infield structure. The practice began in 1909 when a horse and rider weather vane sat atop the old Members' Clubhouse, which was constructed when Pimlico opened in 1870. The Victorian building was destroyed by fire in June 1966. A replica of the old building's cupola was built to stand in the Preakness winner's circle in the infield.
A blanket of yellow flowers daubed with black lacquer to recreate the appearance of a black-eyed Susan (see below) is placed around the winning horse's neck at this time, and a replica of the Woodlawn Vase is given to the winning horse's owner. Should that horse have also won the Kentucky Derby, speculation and excitement immediately begin to mount as to whether that horse will go on to win the Triple Crown of Thoroughbred Racing at the Belmont Stakes in June.

Winning the race

In 1917, the first Woodlawn Vase was awarded to the Preakness winner, who was not allowed to keep it. Eventually a half-size reproduction of the trophy was given to winners to keep permanently. The original trophy is kept at the Maryland Historical Society and brought to the Preakness race each year for the winner's presentation ceremony.
In 1940, it was proposed to drape the winning horse in a garland of black-eyed Susans, the state flower of Maryland. This posed a problem, as the race is run nearly two months before the flowers come into bloom in late June or July. At first, yellow daisies were painted to resemble black-eyed Susans; workers switched to chrysanthemums later. Although the Preakness is sometimes referred to as "the race for the black-eyed Susans", no black-eyed Susan is ever used.
In 1918, 26 horses entered the race, and it was run in two divisions, providing for two winners that year. Currently, the race is limited to 14 horses.
In 1948, the Preakness was televised for the first time by CBS.
The Preakness has been run at seven different distances:
1-1/2 miles (2.41 km) : 1873-1888, 1890
1-1/4 miles (2.01 km) : 1889
1-1/16 miles (1.71 km) : 1894-1900, 1908
1 mile 70 yards (1.67 km) : 1901-1907
1 mile (1.61 km) : 1909, 1910
1-1/8 miles (1.81 km) : 1911-1924
1-3/16 miles (1.91 km) : 1925-present


Speed record:
Set by Tank's Prospect in 1985 and equaled by Louis Quatorze in 1996 and Curlin in 2007, the time record for the current 1-3/16 miles (1.91 km) Preakness is 1:53 2/5 seconds. (Secretariat, the 1973 winner, was also credited with running 1:53 2/5 by the Daily Racing Form. However, the timer malfunctioned during that race, and Pimlico Race Course does not recognize that time, instead assigning Secretariat a time of 1:54 2/5.) The record victory margin is 11½ lengths, by Smarty Jones in 2004.
Most wins by a jockey:
6 - Eddie Arcaro (1941, 1948, 1950, 1951, 1955, 1957)
5 - Pat Day (1985, 1990, 1994, 1995, 1996)
3 - George Barbee (1873, 1876, 1883)
3 - Bill Hartack (1956, 1964, 1969)
3 - Lloyd Hughes (1875, 1879, 1880)
Most wins by a trainer:
7 - R. Wyndham Walden (1875, 1878, 1879, 1880, 1881, 1882, 1888)
5 - Thomas J. Healey (1901, 1922, 1923, 1926, 1929)
5 - D. Wayne Lukas (1980, 1985, 1994, 1995, 1999)
4 - Jim Fitzsimmons (1930, 1935, 1955, 1957)
4 - Jimmy Jones (1947, 1948, 1956, 1958)
4 - Bob Baffert (1997, 1998, 2001, 2002)
3 - John Whalen (1907, 1911, 1913)
Most wins by an owner:
7 - Calumet Farm (1941, 1944, 1947, 1948, 1956, 1958, 1968) (also the leading breeder with 7)
5 - George L. Lorillard (1878, 1879, 1880, 1881, 1882)
4 - Harry P. Whitney (1908, 1921, 1927, 1928)

Fillies in the Preakness

Five fillies have won the Preakness in 134 races:
1903 - Flocarline
1906 - Whimsical
1915 - Rhine Maiden
1924 - Nellie Morse
2009 - Rachel Alexandra, who was also the only horse, male or female, to ever win from the farthest outside position: 13th post.
(Three fillies have won the Kentucky Derby in 134 races, and three fillies have won the Belmont stakes in 139 races. On average, fillies have won between 2% and 3% of the Triple Crown races, with similar numbers for geldings; while about 95% of these high-stakes races have been won by uncastrated male horses, colts or stallions.)

Winners of the Preakness Stakes


2010 Lookin At Lucky 3 Martin Garcia Bob Baffert Michael E. Pegram 1-3/16 1:55.47 $1,100,000 I
2009 Rachel Alexandra ‡ 3 Calvin Borel Steve Asmussen Stonestreet/H. T. McCormick 1-3/16 1:55.08 $1,100,000 I
2008 Big Brown 3 Kent Desormeaux Richard E. Dutrow, Jr. IEAH Stables & P. Pompa, Jr. 1-3/16 1:54.86 $1,000,000 I
2007 Curlin 3 Robby Albarado Steve Asmussen Stonestreet Stables et al. 1-3/16 1:53.46 $1,000,000 I
2006 Bernardini 3 Javier Castellano Tom Albertrani Darley Stables 1-3/16 1:54.65 $1,000,000 I
2005 Afleet Alex 3 Jeremy Rose Timothy F. Ritchey Cash is King Stable 1-3/16 1:55.04 $1,000,000 I
2004 Smarty Jones 3 Stewart Elliott John Servis Someday Farm 1-3/16 1:55.59 $1,000,000 I
2003 Funny Cide 3 Jose Santos Barclay Tagg Sackatoga Stable 1-3/16 1:55.61 $1,000,000 I
2002 War Emblem 3 Victor Espinoza Bob Baffert The Thoroughbred Corp. 1-3/16 1:56.40 $1,000,000 I
2001 Point Given 3 Gary Stevens Bob Baffert The Thoroughbred Corp. 1-3/16 1:55.40 $1,000,000 I
2000 Red Bullet 3 Jerry Bailey Joe Orseno Stronach Stables 1-3/16 1:56.00 $1,000,000 I
1999 Charismatic 3 Chris Antley D. Wayne Lukas Bob & Beverly Lewis 1-3/16 1:55.20 $1,000,000 I
1998 Real Quiet 3 Kent Desormeaux Bob Baffert Michael E. Pegram 1-3/16 1:54.80 $1,000,000 I
1997 Silver Charm 3 Gary Stevens Bob Baffert Bob & Beverly Lewis 1-3/16 1:54.40 $1,000,000 I
1996 Louis Quatorze 3 Pat Day Nick Zito Condren/Cornacchia/Hoffman 1-3/16 1:53.40 $800,000 I
1995 Timber Country 3 Pat Day D. Wayne Lukas† Overbrook/Gainesway/Lewis 1-3/16 1:54.40 $750,000 I
1994 Tabasco Cat 3 Pat Day D. Wayne Lukas D. P. Reynolds & Overbrook 1-3/16 1:56.40 $750,000 I
1993 Prairie Bayou 3 Mike E. Smith Tom Bohannan Loblolly Stable 1-3/16 1:56.60 $750,000 I
1992 Pine Bluff 3 Chris McCarron Tom Bohannan Loblolly Stable 1-3/16 1:55.60 $750,000 I
1991 Hansel 3 Jerry Bailey Frank L. Brothers Lazy Lane Farms 1-3/16 1:54.00 $750,000 I
1990 Summer Squall 3 Pat Day Neil J. Howard Dogwood Stable 1-3/16 1:53.60 $750,000 I
1989 Sunday Silence 3 Pat Valenzuela Charlie Whittingham H-G-W Partners 1-3/16 1:53.80 $750,000 I
1988 Risen Star 3 Ed Delahoussaye Louie Roussel III Roussel & R. Lamarque 1-3/16 1:56.20 $700,000 I
1987 Alysheba 3 Chris McCarron Jack Van Berg D. & P. Scharbauer 1-3/16 1:55.80 $700,000 I
1986 Snow Chief 3 Alex Solis Melvin F. Stute Grinstead & Rochelle 1-3/16 1:54.80 $700,000 I
1985 Tank's Prospect 3 Pat Day D. Wayne Lukas Eugene V. Klein 1-3/16 1:53.40 $700,000 I
1984 Gate Dancer 3 Angel Cordero, Jr. Jack Van Berg Kenneth Opstein 1-3/16 1:53.60 $400,000 I
1983 Deputed Testamony 3 Donald Miller, Jr. J. William Boniface Bonita Farm 1-3/16 1:55.40 $400,000 I
1982 Aloma's Ruler 3 Jack Kaenel John J. Lenzini, Jr. Nathan Scherr 1-3/16 1:55.40 $350,000 I
1981 Pleasant Colony 3 Jorge Velasquez John P. Campo Buckland Farm 1-3/16 1:54.60 $350,000 I
1980 Codex 3 Angel Cordero, Jr. D. Wayne Lukas Tartan Stable 1-3/16 1:54.20 $300,000 I
1979 Spectacular Bid 3 Ronnie Franklin Bud Delp Hawksworth Farm 1-3/16 1:54.20 $300,000 I
1978 Affirmed † 3 Steve Cauthen Laz Barrera Harbor View Farm 1-3/16 1:54.40 $250,000 I
1977 Seattle Slew † 3 Jean Cruguet William H. Turner, Jr. Karen L. Taylor 1-3/16 1:54.40 $250,000 I
1976 Elocutionist 3 John Lively Paul T. Adwell Eugene C. Cashman 1-3/16 1:55.00 $250,000 I
1975 Master Derby 3 Darrel McHargue Smiley Adams Golden Chance Farm 1-3/16 1:56.40 $250,000 I
1974 Little Current 3 Miguel A. Rivera Lou Rondinello Darby Dan Farm 1-3/16 1:54.60 $250,000 I
1973 Secretariat † 3 Ron Turcotte Lucien Laurin Meadow Stable 1-3/16 1:54.40 $250,000 I
1972 Bee Bee Bee 3 Eldon Nelson Del W. Carroll William S. Farish III 1-3/16 1:55.60 $250,000
1971 Canonero II 3 Gustavo Avila Juan Arias Edgar Caibett 1-3/16 1:54.00 $250,000
1970 Personality 3 Eddie Belmonte John W. Jacobs Ethel D. Jacobs 1-3/16 1:56.20 $250,000
1969 Majestic Prince 3 Bill Hartack Johnny Longden Frank M. McMahon 1-3/16 1:55.60 $250,000
1968 Forward Pass 3 Ismael Valenzuela Henry Forrest Calumet Farm 1-3/16 1:56.80 $250,000
1967 Damascus 3 Bill Shoemaker Frank Y. Whiteley, Jr. Edith W. Bancroft 1-3/16 1:55.20 $250,000
1966 Kauai King 3 Don Brumfield Henry Forrest Ford Stable 1-3/16 1:55.40 $250,000
1965 Tom Rolfe 3 Ron Turcotte Frank Y. Whiteley, Jr. Powhatan Stable 1-3/16 1:56.20 $250,000
1964 Northern Dancer 3 Bill Hartack Horatio Luro Windfields Farm 1-3/16 1:56.80 $250,000
1963 Candy Spots 3 Bill Shoemaker Mesh Tenney Rex C. Ellsworth 1-3/16 1:56.20 $250,000
1962 Greek Money 3 John L. Rotz Virgil W. Raines Brandywine Stable 1-3/16 1:56.20 $250,000
1961 Carry Back 3 Johnny Sellers Jack A. Price Katherine Price 1-3/16 1:57.60 $250,000
1960 Bally Ache 3 Bobby Ussery Jimmy Pitt Turfland 1-3/16 1:57.60 $250,000
1959 Royal Orbit 3 William Harmatz Reggie Cornell Halina Gregory Braunstein 1-3/16 1:57.00 $250,000
1958 Tim Tam 3 Ismael Valenzuela Horace A. Jones Calumet Farm 1-3/16 1:57.20 $165,000
1957 Bold Ruler 3 Eddie Arcaro Jim Fitzsimmons Wheatley Stable 1-3/16 1:56.20 $110,000
1956 Fabius 3 Bill Hartack Horace A. Jones Calumet Farm 1-3/16 1:58.40 $150,000
1955 Nashua 3 Eddie Arcaro Jim Fitzsimmons Belair Stud 1-3/16 1:54.60 $110,000
1954 Hasty Road 3 John H. Adams Harry Trotsek Hasty House Farm 1-3/16 1:57.40 $150,000
1953 Native Dancer 3 Eric Guerin Bill Winfrey Alfred G. Vanderbilt II 1-3/16 1:57.80 $110,000
1952 Blue Man 3 Conn McCreary Woody Stephens White Oak Stable 1-3/16 1:57.40 $150,000
1951 Bold 3 Eddie Arcaro Preston M. Burch Brookmeade Stable 1-3/16 1:56.40 $150,000
1950 Hill Prince 3 Eddie Arcaro Casey Hayes Christopher Chenery 1-3/16 1:59.20 $100,000
1949 Capot 3 Ted Atkinson John M. Gaver, Sr. Greentree Stable 1-3/16 1:56.00 $150,000
1948 Citation † 3 Eddie Arcaro Horace A. Jones Calumet Farm 1-3/16 2:02.40 $160,000
1947 Faultless 3 Douglas Dodson Horace A. Jones Calumet Farm 1-3/16 1:59.00 $160,000
1946 Assault † 3 Warren Mehrtens Max Hirsch King Ranch 1-3/16 2:01.40 $160,000
1945 Polynesian 3 Wayne D. Wright Morris H. Dixon Gertrude T. Widener 1-3/16 1:58.80 $110,000
1944 Pensive 3 Conn McCreary Ben A. Jones Calumet Farm 1-3/16 1:59.20 $100,000
1943 Count Fleet † 3 Johnny Longden Don Cameron Fannie Hertz 1-3/16 1:57.40 $75,000
1942 Alsab 3 Basil James Sarge Swenke Mrs. Albert Sabath 1-3/16 1:57.00 $100,000
1941 Whirlaway † 3 Eddie Arcaro Ben A. Jones Calumet Farm 1-3/16 1:58.80 $75,000
1940 Bimelech 3 Fred A. Smith William J. Hurley Edward R. Bradley 1-3/16 1:58.60 $75,000
1939 Challedon 3 George Seabo Louis J. Schaefer William L. Brann 1-3/16 1:59.80 $75,000
1938 Dauber 3 Maurice Peters Richard E. Handlen Foxcatcher Farms 1-3/16 1:59.80 $75,000
1937 War Admiral † 3 Charley Kurtsinger George Conway Glen Riddle Farm 1-3/16 1:58.40 $75,000
1936 Bold Venture 3 George Woolf Max Hirsch Morton L. Schwartz 1-3/16 1:59.00 $50,000
1935 Omaha † 3 Willie Saunders Jim Fitzsimmons Belair Stud 1-3/16 1:58.40 $50,000
1934 High Quest 3 Robert Jones Robert A. Smith Brookmeade Stable 1-3/16 1:58.20 $50,000
1933 Head Play 3 Charley Kurtsinger Thomas P. Hayes Mrs. Silas B. Mason 1-3/16 2:02.00 $50,000
1932 Burgoo King 3 Eugene James H. J. Thompson Edward R. Bradley 1-3/16 1:59.80 $90,000
1931 Mate 3 George Ellis James W. Healy Albert C. Bostwick, Jr. 1-3/16 1:59.00 $90,000
1930 Gallant Fox † 3 Earl Sande Jim Fitzsimmons Belair Stud 1-3/16 2:00.60 $90,000
1929 Dr. Freeland 3 Louis Schaefer Thomas J. Healey Walter J. Salmon, Sr. 1-3/16 2:01.60 $90,000
1928 Victorian 3 Raymond Workman James G. Rowe, Jr. Harry P. Whitney 1-3/16 2:00.20 $90,000
1927 Bostonian 3 Whitey Abel Fred Hopkins Harry P. Whitney 1-3/16 2:01.60 $100,000
1926 Display 3 John Maiben Thomas J. Healey Walter J. Salmon, Sr. 1-3/16 1:59.80 $90,000
1925 Coventry 3 Clarence Kummer William B. Duke Gifford A. Cochran 1-3/16 1:59.00 $90,000
1924 Nellie Morse ‡ 3 John Merimee Albert B. Gordon Bud Fisher 1-1/8 1:57.20 $90,000
1923 Vigil 3 Benny Marinelli Thomas J. Healey Walter J. Salmon, Sr. 1-1/8 1:53.60 $90,000
1922 Pillory 3 Louis Morris Thomas J. Healey Richard T. Wilson, Jr. 1-1/8 1:51.60 $90,000
1921 Broomspun 3 Frank Coltiletti James G. Rowe, Sr. Harry P. Whitney 1-1/8 1:54.20 $75,000
1920 Man o' War 3 Clarence Kummer Louis Feustel Glen Riddle Farm 1-1/8 1:51.60 $40,000
1919 Sir Barton † 3 Johnny Loftus H. Guy Bedwell J. K. L. Ross 1-1/8 1:53.00 $40,000
1918 War Cloud 3 Johnny Loftus Walter B. Jennings A. Kingsley Macomber 1-1/8 1:53.60 $20,000
1918 Jack Hare, Jr. 3 Charles Peake Frank D. Weir W. E. Applegate 1-1/8 1:53.40 $20,000
1917 Kalitan 3 Everett Haynes Bill Hurley Edward R. Bradley 1-1/8 1:54.40 $7,500
1916 Damrosch 3 Linus McAtee Albert G. Weston J. K. L. Ross 1-1/8 1:54.80 $2,000
1915 Rhine Maiden ‡ 3 Douglas Hoffman Frank Devers Edward F. Whitney 1-1/8 1:58.00 $2,000
1914 Holiday 3 Andy Schuttinger J. Simon Healy Mrs. A. Barklie 1-1/8 1:53.80 $2,000
1913 Buskin 3 James Butwell John Whalen John Whalen 1-1/8 1:53.40 $3,000
1912 Colonel Holloway 3 Clarence Turner Dave Woodford Beverwyck Stable 1-1/8 1:56.60 $2,500
1911 Watervale 3 Eddie Dugan John Whalen August Belmont, Jr. 1-1/8 1:51.00 $4,500
1910 Layminster 3 Roy Estep J. Simon Healy Edward B. Cassatt 1 mile 1:40.60 $5,500
1909 Effendi 3 Willie Doyle Frank C. Frisbie W. T. Ryan 1 mile 1:39.80 $5,500
1908 Royal Tourist 3 Eddie Dugan A. Jack Joyner Harry P. Whitney 1-1/16 1:46.40 $4,000
1907 Don Enrique 3 George Mountain John Whalen August Belmont, Jr. 1-1/16 1:45.40 $3,800
1906 Whimsical ‡ 3 Walter Miller Tim J. Gaynor Tim J. Gaynor 1-1/16 1:45.00 $3,800
1905 Cairngorm 3 Willie Davis A. Jack Joyner Sydney Paget 1-1/16 1:45.80 $3,600
1904 Bryn Mawr 3 Gene Hildebrand W. Fred Presgrave Goughacres Stable 1-1/16 1:44.20 $3,800
1903 Flocarline ‡ 3 William Gannon H. C. Riddle M. H. Tichenor 1-1/16 1:44.80 $3,000
1902 Old England 3 L. Jackson Green B. Morris Green B. Morris 1-1/16 1:45.80 $3,750
1901 The Parader 3 F. Landry Thomas J. Healey Richard T. Wilson, Jr. 1-1/16 1:47.20 $2,650
1900 Hindus 3 Henry Spencer John H. Morris George J. Long 1-1/16 1:48.40 $3,000
1899 Half Time 3 Richard Clawson Frank McCabe Philip J. Dwyer 1-1/16 1:47.00 $2,500
1898 Sly Fox 3 Willie Simms Hardy Campbell, Jr. Charles F. Dwyer 1-1/16 1:49.75 $2,400
1897 Paul Kauvar 3 T. Thorpe Thomas P. Hayes Thomas P. Hayes 1-1/16 1:51.25 $2,400
1896 Margrave 3 Henry Griffin Byron McClelland August Belmont, Jr. 1-1/16 1:51.00 $2,250
1895 Belmar 3 Fred Taral Edward Feakes Preakness Stables 1-1/16 1:50.50 $2,250
1894 Assignee 3 Fred Taral William Lakeland James & Foxhall Keene 1-1/16 1:49.25 $3,000
1893 No Race - No Race No Race No Race no race 0:00.00 no race
1892 No Race - No Race No Race No Race no race 0:00.00 no race
1891 No Race - No Race No Race No Race no race 0:00.00 no race
1890 Montague 3 Willie Martin Edward Feakes Preakness Stables 1-1/2 2:36.75 $2,000
1889 Buddhist 3 George Anderson John W. Rogers Sam S. Brown 1-1/4 2:17.50 $2,000
1888 Refund 3 Fred Littlefield R. Wyndham Walden R. Wyndham Walden 1-1/2 2:49.00 $2,000
1887 Dunboyne 3 William Donohue William Jennings William Jennings 1-1/2 2:39.50 $2,500
1886 The Bard 3 S. Fisher John Huggins A. J. Cassatt 1-1/2 2:45.00 $3,000
1885 Tecumseh 3 Jim McLaughlin Charles S. Littlefield, Sr. W. Donohue 1-1/2 2:49.00 $3,000
1884 Knight of Ellerslie 3 S. Fisher Thomas W. Doswell Hancock/Doswell 1-1/2 2:39.50 $3,000
1883 Jacobus 3 George Barbee R. Dwyer James E. Kelley 1-1/2 2:42.50 $2,500
1882 Vanguard 3 Tom Costello R. Wyndham Walden George L. Lorillard 1-1/2 2:44.50 $2,000
1881 Saunterer 3 Tom Costello R. Wyndham Walden George L. Lorillard 1-1/2 2:40.50 $3,000
1880 Grenada 3 Lloyd Hughes R. Wyndham Walden George L. Lorillard 1-1/2 2:40.50 $3,000
1879 Harold 3 Lloyd Hughes R. Wyndham Walden George L. Lorillard 1-1/2 2:40.50 $4,000
1878 Duke of Magenta 3 C. Holloway R. Wyndham Walden George L. Lorillard 1-1/2 2:41.75 $3,500
1877 Cloverbrook 3 C. Holloway Jeter Walden E. A. Clabaugh 1-1/2 2:45.50 $2,500
1876 Shirley 3 George Barbee W. Brown Pierre Lorillard IV 1-1/2 2:44.75 $3,000
1875 Tom Ochiltree 3 Lloyd Hughes R. Wyndham Walden John F. Chamberlain 1-1/2 2:43.50 $3,000
1874 Culpepper 3 William Donohue Hugh Gaffney Hugh Gaffney 1-1/2 2:56.50 $3,000
1873 Survivor 3 George Barbee A. Davis Pryor John F. Chamberlain 1-1/2 2:43.00 $3,000
A † designates a Triple Crown Winner.
A ‡ designates a filly.
Note: D. Wayne Lukas swept the 1995 Triple Crown with two different horses.[citation needed]
In 2006, Kentucky Derby Winner Barbaro broke down in the first 100 yards of the Preakness. Bernardini went on to win the prestigious event. Barbaro survived his injuries and was cared for at the New Bolton Center of the University of Pennsylvania but was euthanized January 29, 2007 due to complications from laminitis. This year's ninth race is now called the Barbaro Stakes in his honor.

Aishwarya Rai

Aishwarya Rai Bachchan, (born Aishwarya Rai, and sometimes known simply as Ash or Aish, Tulu: ಐಶ್ವರ್ಯಾ ರೈ; 1 November 1973) is an Indian actress and former Miss World. Before starting her acting career, she worked as a model and gained fame after winning the Miss World title in 1994. During her career, Rai has acted in over forty movies in Hindi, English, Tamil and Bengali including the international productions Bride & Prejudice (2004), The Mistress of Spices (2005), The Last Legion (2007) and The Pink Panther 2 (2009) in English.
Often cited by the media as the most beautiful woman in the world, Rai made her movie debut in Mani Ratnam's Tamil film Iruvar (1997) and had her first commercial success in the Tamil movie Jeans (1998). She came to the attention of Bollywood in the movie Hum Dil De Chuke Sanam (1999), directed by Sanjay Leela Bhansali. Her performance in the film won her the Filmfare Best Actress Award. In 2002 she appeared in Bhansali's next project, Devdas (2002), for which she won her second Filmfare Best Actress Award.
After a low phase in her career during 2003–2005, she appeared in the blockbuster Dhoom 2 (2006), which turned out to be her biggest Bollywood commercial success. She later appeared in films like Guru (2007) and Jodhaa Akbar (2008), which were commercially successful and gained her critical acclaim. Rai has thus established herself as one of the leading contemporary actresses in the Indian film industry.
Contents [hide]
1 Early life
2 Miss World
3 Film career
3.1 Early career (1997–1998)
3.2 Success (1999–2005)
3.3 Recent work (2006–present)
4 Other work
5 Personal life
6 International media
7 Awards and nominations
8 Filmography
9 See also
10 References
11 External links

Early life

Rai was born in Mangalore to Krishnaraj Rai and Vrinda Rai. She has one elder brother, Aditya Rai, who is an engineer in the merchant navy and has also co-produced one of Rai's movies, Dil Ka Rishta (2003). At an early age her parents moved to Mumbai where she attended the Arya Vidya Mandir high school in Santa Cruz. Rai then entered Jai Hind College at Churchgate for one year, and then moved to Ruparel College in Matunga to finish her HSC studies. She did well in school and planned to become an architect and went on pursuing studies in architecture. She can communicate in several languages, including her mother tongue Tulu, as well as Hindi, English, Marathi and Tamil. She started studying architecture but gave up her education to pursue a career in modelling.

Miss World

While pursuing her studies in architecture, Rai began modelling on the side. In the 1994 Miss India contest, she won the second place behind Sushmita Sen, and was crowned Miss India World. She went on to win the Miss World title the same year, where she also won the Miss Photogenic award. She abandoned her academic education after winning the pageant and spent one year reigning as Miss World in London. Rai then started working as a professional model and then moved on to her current profession as an actress.

Film career

Early career (1997–1998)
Rai made her acting debut in Mani Ratnam's Tamil biopic film, Iruvar (1997) with Mohanlal,The controversial film was a critical success and won many awards including Best Film award at the Belgrade International Film Festival, two National Film Awards, and two Filmfare Awards South. Rai appeared in dual roles, opposite veteran actor Mohanlal, with one of her roles being a cinematic depiction of political leader and ex-actress J. Jayalalithaa. Rai made her Bollywood debut in the film, Aur Pyaar Ho Gaya opposite Bobby Deol, which also released that year; the film did not do well at the box office,and was also panned by critics. However, her third project, S. Shankar's Tamil film, Jeans (1998) was a commercial success. The film was also noted for the song "Poovukkul", written by Vairamuthu, and some reviews of the music video compared her to prominent world monuments.

Success (1999–2005)
In 1999 Rai starred in Sanjay Leela Bhansali's Hum Dil De Chuke Sanam opposite Salman Khan and Ajay Devgan. The film was centered on Rai's character, Nandini, who is forced to marry Devgan's character despite being in love with another man (Khan), and as her husband tries to get her to her previous love, she eventually falls for him. Rai's portrayal won her critical acclaim, with a review on Rediff.com writing, "Aishwarya looks beautiful as usual... This film will most likely draw her accolades from all over, maybe even get her recognised as an actress the way Manisha Koirala did in Khamoshi. In many scenes, there is no trace of makeup and she looks very fresh". The film also became her first box office success in Bollywood and earned her first Filmfare Best Actress Award for her. In the same year she appeared in Subhash Ghai's Taal, in which she played the role of a young village girl Mansi, who becomes a big Pop star after being hurt by her lover played by Akshay Khanna, the film was an average performer in India but was a big success among the international audience, especially in the United States, where it became the first Indian film to reach the top 20 on Variety's box office list. Her performance in the film was praised with Rediff.com writing, "After being praised for her looks and acting talent in Hum Dil De Chuke Sanam, Aishwarya has excelled in Taal. She looks etheral and unlike the former film, has a very sober and soft role. Though she looks pained and tragic in most of the film, she does a good job of a woman who is very protective of her father and one who doesn't think twice before rejecting a lover who has insulted her father." She received another Best Actress nomination at the Filmfare for her performance in the film.
In 2000, she appeared in Mansoor Khan's Josh alongside Shahrukh Khan and Chandrachur Singh, in which she played a Catholic girl named Shirley who falls in love with the sibling of her Brother's enemy. The film was a commercial success. Later that year she appeared in Satish Kaushik's Hamara Dil Aapke Paas Hai opposite Anil Kapoor. It was a moderate success and her performance earned her a Filmfare Best Actress Award nomination. Later that year she played a supporting role in Aditya Chopra's Mohabbatein alongside Amitabh Bachchan and Shahrukh Khan. The film was a major commercial success and became the second-highest grosser of the year, and it earned her a Filmfare Best Supporting Actress Award nomination. Later that year, she starred in the Tamil film Kandukondain Kandukondain, alongside Mammooty, Ajith Kumar and Tabu.

Aishwarya Rai and Rajinikanth at the Machu Picchu, Peru site during a song picturization for Endhiran
In 2002, Rai appeared alongside Shahrukh Khan and Madhuri Dixit in Sanjay Leela Bhansali's Devdas, an adaptation of Sharat Chandra Chattopadhyay's famous novel by the same name. She played the role of Paro (Parvati), the love interest of the protagonist, played by Khan. The film received a special screening at the Cannes Film Festival. It became the highest-grossing film of the year in both India and overseas, earning a revenue of Rs 390 million domestically. Devdas won numerous awards, including 10 Filmfare Awards, and Rai received her second Filmfare Best Actress Award for her performance. In 2003, she acted in Rituparno Ghosh's Bengali film Chokher Bali, an adaptation of Rabindranath Tagore's novel by the same name. She portrayed the character of a young woman called Binodini, who is left to her own devices when her sickly husband dies soon after they are married.[20] That year she also appeared in her home production Dil Ka Rishta alongside Arjun Rampal and Rohan Sippy's Kuch Na Kaho alongside Abhishek Bachchan, none of which succeeded.
In 2004 she appeared in Gurinder Chadha's Bollywood-style English adaptation of Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen, Bride and Prejudice alongside Martin Henderson. In the film she portrayed the role of Lalita Bakshi, the film's counterpart of Elizabeth Bennet in Austen's novel. This was followed by Rajkumar Santoshi's Khakee alongside Amitabh Bachchan, Akshay Kumar, Ajay Devgan and Jayapradha, in the film she played a negative role for the first time in her career. In the same year she appeared in in her second film with Rituparno Ghosh, Raincoat alongside Ajay Devgan. The film was highly acclaimed by the critics, with Rai receiving rave reviews for her performance.
In 2005 she appeared in Shabd a film based on a love triangle alongside Sanjay Dutt and Zayed Khan. The film was a box office flop wheraeas it received average reviews from the critics. Her next release that year was Paul Mayeda Berges's The Mistress of Spices based upon the novel The Mistress of Spices by Chitra Banerjee Divakaruni in which she starred alongside Dylan McDermott. The film received negative review by critics and was also a commercial failure. The same year she made a special appearance in Shaad Ali's Bunty Aur Babli in a hugely popular seven-minute dance sequence for the song "Kajra Re", alongside Amitabh Bachchan and Abhishek Bachchan.
Recent work (2006–present)

Aishwarya Rai in a differnt getup,as an old Dwarf, in the movie Dhoom 2
In the year 2006, Rai starred in J P Dutta's Umrao Jaan, a second film adaptation of the Urdu novel Umrao Jaan Ada (1905), written by Mirza Hadi Ruswa. She portrayed courtesan and poetess by the same name from 19th century Lucknow. The film was a critical and commercial failure, though Rai's work was generally well received. Critic Taran Adarsh wrote, "Aishwarya Rai looks ethereal. She has looked heavenly and performed so convincingly. She emotes through her expressive eyes and the consistency in her performance is evident from start to end". Later that year she appeared as a master thief, Sunheri, in Yash Raj Films's Dhoom 2 directed by Sanjay Gadhvi, with an ensemble cast of Hrithik Roshan, Abhishek Bachchan, Bipasha Basu and Uday Chopra. The film turned out to be a blockbuster and became the highest grossing film of the year in India, earning revenues of over Rs 770 million domestically. The film also sparked a controversy for a scene containing a kiss between her and Hrithik Roshan. However, Rai's performance in the film received mostly negative reviews with a reviewer on Rediff.com writing, "Ash's character too is all gloss and no depth. You seldom feel any tension in her behaviour and expressions as she accompanies the master thief on potentially dangerous missions. Sunehri enters the film nearly 50 minutes after its opening in a disguise. In no time, she is wearing the flimsiest of clothes. Once she opens her mouth—and she does it two minutes after appearing in the film—she spoils the image. There is no sensuality anymore, and half an hour later, one wonders what made the master thief fall for her.". Nonetheless, her performance earned her a sixth nomination for Filmfare Best Actress Award.
In 2007 she appeared in Mani Ratnam's Guru as Sujata. Speculated to be based on the life of Indian businessman Dhirubhai Ambani, it was a rag to riches story about an ambitious small town man who ends up as the owner of the biggest corporation in India. The film was premièred at the Elgin Theatre in Toronto, Canada, making it the first Indian film to have a mainstream international premiere in Canada. The film was critically acclaimed and performed well at the box office. Critical reception for Rai was mixed. While Nikhat Kazmi from The Times of India wrote that she is "just okay and fails to register the growth in her character", Rediff.com's Raja Sen described it as "arguably her finest performance, visible especially when she takes over the film's climax." Rai got her seventh Filmfare nomination for Best Actress for the role. In the same year she starred in Jag Mundhra's British film Provoked as Kiranjit Ahluwalia (an NRI woman who killed her abusive husband after facing severe domestic violence) alongside Naveen Andrews. The film was panned by critics and was also a commercial failure, though Rai received positive reviews from critics. In the same year she appeared as a female Indian warrior from Kerala named Mira in Doug Lefler's epic film The Last Legion alongside Sir Ben Kingsley, Colin Firth and Thomas Sangster. The film was a critical failure.

Aishwarya Rai at the Cannes Film Festival (2008)
In 2008, she starred alongside Hrithik Roshan in Ashutosh Gowariker's historical drama Jodhaa Akbar, a partly fictionalised account of the life of Muslim Mughal emperor Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar, played by Roshan and his Hindu wife Jodha Bai, played by Rai. The film was a critical and commercial success, earning revenues of over Rs 590 million domestically. Rai's performance in the film was praised by critics, with Rajeev Masand writing, "Aishwarya Rai is wonderfully restrained and uses her eyes expertly to communicate so much, making this one of her finest outings on screen". She earned her eighth nomination for Best Actress at the Filmfare for her performance. Later that year she co-starred with husband Abhishek Bachchan and father-in-law Amitabh Bachchan in Ram Gopal Verma's Sarkar Raj, a sequel to his previous film Sarkar. She played the CEO of a major power company proposing to establish a new power plant in rural Maharashtra.
In 2009 she appeared in Harald Zwart's spy comedy film The Pink Panther 2 playing the role of criminology expert, Sonia Solandres. Like its predecessor, the sequel received negative reviews from critics and did a moderate business of $75,871,032 worldwide. As of August 2009, she is slated to appear with Rajinikanth in the Tamil film Endhiran, directed by S. Shankar, with Vikram Kennedy in Mani Ratnam's next film, Raavana which is also to be simultaneously made in Hindi, titled Raavan, with Abhishek Bachchan in the lead.She will also appear in Sanjay Leela Bhansali's Guzaarish opposite Hrithik Roshan, Vipul Shah's Action Replay opposite Akshay Kumar, Abhinay Deo's next film produced by Farhan Akhtar and Vishal Bharadwaj's next directorial venture.
In 2009 Rai was awarded the Padma Shri for her contributions to Indian cinema.In the same year she refused to accept the second-highest Order Of France, Ordre des Arts et des Lettres as her father was suffering from serious illness, and she wanted her whole family to attend the award function. She is only the fourth Indian actor after Amitabh Bachchan, Nandita Das and Shahrukh Khan to be chosen for an Order Of France.In June 2009, she was declared the Female Star of The Decade at the tenth International Indian Film Academy Awards held in Macau.

Other work

In 1999 Rai participated in a world tour called the Magnificent Five along with Aamir Khan, Rani Mukerji, Akshaye Khanna and Twinkle Khanna. In 2003 she became the first Indian actress to be a jury member at the Cannes Film Festival.
Rai is the brand ambassador for The Eye Bank Association of India's nationwide campaign to promote eye donation in India.
In 2004 she travelled to Siachen Glacier, which at a height of 13000 ft is the highest battlefield in the world, to boost the morale of the jawans for a special New Year episode on the NDTV show, Jai Jawan. In 2005, she became a brand ambassador for Pulse Polio, a campaign established by the Government of India in 1994 to eradicate Polio in India.
In February 2005, Rai performed at the HELP! Telethon Concert to help raise money for the victims of 2004 tsunami earthquake in company with other Bollywood stars.In 2008 she along with her family laid the foundation of a special school for underprivilged girls in the Daulatpur village in Uttar Pradesh. The school will be made by her family and is going to be named after her.
She appeared along with various other Bollywood actors at the Closing Ceremony of the 2006 Commonwealth Games in Melbourne, as part of a performance showcasing Indian culture, on behalf of the 2010 Commonwealth Games.
In Summer 2008, Rai joined her husband and father-in-law along with Preity Zinta and Ritesh Deshmukh on the Unforgettable World Tour. The first leg of the tour covered the USA, Canada, London, and Trinidad. The second leg of the tour will most likely happen by the end of this year 2008. Amitabh's company AB Corp Ltd. along with Wizcraft International Entertainment Pvt. Ltd are behind the concert.

Personal life

Aishwarya Rai with her husband Abhishek Bachchan at the IIFA Awards (2007).
In 1999 Aishwarya began dating Bollywood actor Salman Khan; their relationship was often reported in the media until the couple separated in 2001. Rai cited "abuse (verbal, physical and emotional), infidelity and indignity" on part of Khan as a reason for ending their relationship, though Khan has denied this.
Rai is married to actor Abhishek Bachchan. After much speculation concerning their relationship, their engagement was announced on 14 January 2007. The announcement was later confirmed by his father Amitabh Bachchan. The couple got married on 20 April 2007 according to traditional Hindu rites of the South Indian Bunt community, to which she belongs. Token North Indian and Bengali ceremonies were also performed. The wedding took place in a private ceremony at the Bachchan residence Prateeksha in Juhu, Mumbai. Though the wedding was a private affair intended for the Bachchan and Rai families and friends, the involvement of the media turned it into a national extravaganza. They have been cited as a supercouple in the Indian media. Rai has been very close to her family and lived with them in Bandra, Mumbai until her marriage.
International media

Rai has been the most popular face of Indian cinema globally. In 2004 she was chosen by Time magazine as one of the World's "100 Most Influential People", and appeared on the cover of Time magazine, Asia Edition in 2003. In October 2004 a wax figure of Rai was put on display in London's Madame Tussaud's wax museum. She was the 6th Indian and the second Bollywood personality after her father-in-law Amitabh Bachchan to get this honour.
She was the subject of a 60 Minutes profile on 2 January 2005, which said that "at least according to thousands of Web sites, Internet polls and even Julia Roberts", she was "The World's Most Beautiful Woman". In that same year she became a global brand ambassador of L'Oreal alongside Andie Macdowell, Eva Longoria and Penelope Cruz. The same year, a special Tulip in the Netherlands was named "Aishwarya Rai" after her. Rai became the first Indian to appear on such shows as Late Show with David Letterman, and was the first Bollywood personality to appear on Oprah's "Women Across the Globe" segment. In 2005, Harpers and Queen's list of 10 Most beautiful women in the world ranked her at the 9th spot. In 2009 she made an appearance on Martha Stewart's show Martha. The same year she also appeared on The Tyra Banks Show hosted by Tyra Banks.

Awards and nominations

Year Title Language Role Notes
1997 Iruvar Tamil Pushpa / Kalpana
Aur Pyaar Ho Gaya Hindi Ashi Kapoor
1998 Jeans Tamil Madhumita
1999 Aa Ab Laut Chalen Hindi Pooja
Hum Dil De Chuke Sanam Hindi Nandini Winner, Filmfare Best Actress Award
Ravoyi Chandamama Telugu Special appearance
Taal Hindi Mansi Nominated, Filmfare Best Actress Award
2000 Mela Hindi Champakali Guest appearance
Kandukondain Kandukondain Tamil Meenakshi Bala
Josh Hindi Shirley
Hamara Dil Aapke Paas Hai Hindi Preeti Virat Nominated, Filmfare Best Actress Award
Dhaai Akshar Prem Ke Hindi Sahiba Grewal
Mohabbatein Hindi Megha Nominated, Filmfare Best Supporting Actress Award
2001 Albela Hindi Sonia
2002 Hum Tumhare Hain Sanam Hindi Suman Guest appearance
Hum Kisi Se Kum Nahin Hindi Komal Rastogi
23rd March 1931: Shaheed Hindi Special appearance
Devdas Hindi Parvati (Paro) Winner, Filmfare Best Actress Award
Shakti: The Power Hindi Herself Special appearance in song "Ishq Kamina"
2003 Chokher Bali Bengali Binodhini
Dil Ka Rishta Hindi Tia Sharma
Kuch Naa Kaho Hindi Namrata Shrivastav
2004 Bride & Prejudice English Lalita Bakshi
Khakee Hindi Mahalakshmi
Kyun...! Ho Gaya Na Hindi Diya Malhotra
Raincoat Hindi Neerja Nominated, Filmfare Best Actress Award
2005 Shabd Hindi Antara Vashist/Tammana
Bunty Aur Babli Hindi Special appearance in the song "Kajra Re"
Mistress of Spices English Tilo
2006 Umrao Jaan Hindi Umrao Jaan
Dhoom 2 Hindi Sunehri Nominated, Filmfare Best Actress Award
2007 Guru Hindi Sujata Nominated, Filmfare Best Actress Award
Provoked English
Hindi Kiranjit Ahluwalia
The Last Legion English Mira
2008 Jodhaa Akbar Hindi Jodhaa Bai Nominated, Filmfare Best Actress Award
Sarkar Raj Hindi Anita Rajan
2009 The Pink Panther 2 English Sonia Solandres
2010 Raavan Hindi Ragini Releasing on June 18, 2010
Raavanan Tamil Releasing on June 18, 2010
Endhiran Tamil Sharmili Releasing on November 5, 2010
Guzaarish Hindi Releasing on November 17, 2010
Action Replay Hindi Filming

Bumm Bumm Bole

Bumm Bumm Bole is a Hindi film by director Priyadarshan. The film stars Taare Zameen Par fame Darsheel Safary, Atul Kulkarni, Rituparna Sengupta and new comer Ziyah Vastani. The film is an authorized remake of the 1997 Iranian film Children of Heaven which was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film in the same year.. Bumm Bumm Bole was released on May 14, 2010. The title of the movie is based on one of the songs of Taare Zameen Par


Khogiram (Atul Kulkarni), his wife (Rituparna Sengupta) and their kids Pinu (Darsheel) and Rimzim (Zia) belong to a terrorist dominated region. Khogiram and Ritu have a hand-to-mouth income working for a tea plantation and can barely manage things. The kids are affected by this as well. They go to a respectable school as it is Khogiram's ambition to give them the educational opportunities he missed. But the financial crunch makes it difficult for kids to match the standards of the school. They don't have enough money for uniform or shoes. Things become worse when Pinu misplaces Rimzim's only pair of shoes in the vegetable shop!
Rimzim can't go to school without her shoes. They work out a scheme where both of them share the same shoes. However, Pinu always gets into trouble at school waiting for Rimzim to give him the shoes. He comes to know of the Interschool Marathon where one of the prizes is a pair of shoes. Pinu plans to run for it and win the shoes for Rimzim.
Will Pinu be able to win the shoes for his kid sister and avert his fathers' anger? Will god smile at Pinu and bring an end to his troubles? How long will this dark stretch last for Khogiram's family?


Darsheel Safary...... Pinu
Atul Kulkarni...... Khogiram
Rituparna Sengupta...... Khogiram's Wife
Ziyah Vastani...... Rim Zim


No. Title Lyrics Music Singers Length
1. "Bumm Bumm Bole" Irfan Siddiqui Azaan Sami Shaan 3:22
2. "Aashaon Ke Pankh" Satish Mutatkar Tapas Relia Rishikesh Kamerkar, Rajeev Sundaresan, Kshitij Wagh, Kirti Sagathia 4:42
3. "Mann Ki Asha" Sameer MG Sreekumar Malini Awasthi 4:09
4. "Rang De" Satish Mutatkar Tapas Relia Clinton Creejo, Shasha Tirupathi, Kirti Sagathia 5:03


Raajneeti ('English: Politics) (Hindi: राजनीति) is an upcoming 2010 Indian political thriller written, directed, and produced by Prakash Jha. The film, shot in Bhopal, stars Ajay Devgn, Katrina Kaif, Ranbir Kapoor and Arjun Rampal in lead roles.The film is scheduled for release on June 4, 2010.


Raajneeti is a story about Indian politics. About Indian democracy. About Indian elections. Above all, it is the story of a few people who control the destiny of millions. It is the story of their unstoppable ambition, and their bitter and violent battle to achieve it. This is the story of people who understand power - and know how to wield it at will. Raajneeti is about politics. And beyond. It is about Suraj (Ajay Devgan), a man who wants to be fighting for his country; Indu (Katrina Kaif), a woman who actually is fighting for the country; Prithvi Raj (Arjun Rampal), a man wanting nobody to fight for the country; and lastly Prithviraj's younger brother Samar (Ranbir Kapoor), a foreign youngster, eventhough he is PrithviRaj's brother, he still fights for the country.


Actor/Actress Role
Ajay Devgan Sooraj Kumar
Katrina Kaif Indu Pratap
Ranbir Kapoor Samar Pratap
Arjun Rampal Prithviraj Pratap
Naseeruddin Shah Bhaskar Sanyal
Nana Patekar Brij Gopal
Manoj Bajpai Veerendra Pratap
Sarah Thompson Sara Jean Collins


The music for the film was composed by Pritam, Wayne Sharpe, Aadesh Shrivastava, and Shantanu Moitra.

! Track !! Song !! Artist(s) |- | 01 - Composed by Pritam | "Bheeghi si Bhaaghi si" | Mohit Chauhan & Antara Mitra | |- | 02 - Composed by Aadesh Shrivastava | "Mora Piya" | Aadesh Shrivastava | |- | 03 - Composed by Shantanu Moitra | "Ishq Barse" | Pronob Biswas & Hamsika Iyer, Swanand Kirkire | |- | 04 - Composed by Wayne Sharpe | "Dhan Dhan Dharti" | Shankar Mahadevan


^ "Raajneeti: Complete cast and crew details". Filmicafe Media Inc. Retrieved 2010-01-13.
^ Trailer, Cast and Crew, Preview of Rajneeti

Deepika Padukone

Deepika Padukone (Kannada/Konkani:ದೀಪಿಕಾ ಪಡುಕೋಣೆ, pronounced [diːpɪkaː ˈpədʊkoːn]); born 5 January 1986) is an Indian actress and a former model. Padukone made her acting debut with the 2006 Kannada film Aishwarya. The following year, she made her Hindi film debut with the blockbuster Om Shanti Om which earned her the Filmfare Best Female Debut Award.

Early life and background

Padukone was born in Copenhagen, Denmark. Her family moved to Bangalore, India, when she was eleven months old. Padukone is of Mangalorean origin, and her mother tongue is Konkani. Her lineage hails from Padukone village in Kundapura Taluk in the Udupi District of the state of Karnataka, India.Her father, Prakash Padukone, is a retired badminton player of international repute, and her mother is a travel agent. Padukone also has a younger sister, Anisha, born on February 2, 1991.[3]
Padukone attended Sophia High School in Bangalore, and completed her pre-university studies at Mount Carmel College Bangalore.[4] While in high school she played badminton at the state level.[5] However, she was not keen on pursuing a career as a badminton player.[6]

While in college, Padukone pursued a career in modeling.[7] She was spotted in a ramp competition in NLS, Bangalore.[citation needed] Over the years, she has modeled for such Indian brand names as Liril, Dabur Lal powder, Close-Up toothpaste and Limca, and has been "brand ambassador" for the Jewels of India retail jewellery show.[8] The cosmetics company Maybelline made her its international spokesperson.[9]
At the fifth annual Kingfisher Fashion Awards she was awarded the title "Model of the Year".[10] Shortly afterward, she was chosen as one of the models for the Kingfisher Swimsuit Calendar for 2006 and won two trophies at the Idea Zee Fashion Awards: "Female Model of the Year - (Commercial Assignments)" and "Fresh Face of the Year".[11][12] Padukone was also chosen as the brand ambassador of Kingfisher Airlines and later Levi Strauss and Tissot SA.[13]
After pursuing a successful career in modeling, Padukone branched out into acting. She started by starring in the music video for the song Naam Hai Tera from the independent pop album Aap Kaa Surroor by Himesh Reshammiya.
In 2006, Padukone made her cinematic debut in the Kannada film Aishwarya starring opposite actor Upendra. She later made a successful Bollywood debut in 2007 with Farah Khan's blockbuster Om Shanti Om opposite Shahrukh Khan.[14][15] Her performance was well received, earning the actress a Filmfare Best Female Debut Award as well as her first Filmfare Best Actress nomination. Taran Adarsh from indiaFM noted, "Deepika has all it takes to be a top star — the personality, the looks and yes, she's supremely talented too. Standing in the same frame as SRK and getting it right is no small achievement. She comes as a whiff of fresh air!"[16] Padukone was then seen in Siddharth Anand's romantic comedy Bachna Ae Haseeno opposite Ranbir Kapoor and alongside Bipasha Basu and Minissha Lamba. The film, which released on 15 August 2008, performed reasonably well at the box office. Her next film Chandni Chowk To China, released on 16 January 2009, and was a critical and commercial disaster. Padukone's fourth release Love Aaj Kal, released on 31 July 2009 and proved to be one of the biggest hits of 2009.[17]
Padukone was last seen in Excel Entertainment’s Karthik Calling Karthik opposite Farhan Akhtar followed by Sajid Khan’s Housefull alongside Akshay Kumar. Her future projects include Khelein Hum Jee Jaan Sey directed by Ashutosh Gowarikar, and Kunal Kohli’s Break Ke Baad co-starring Imran Khan.
Other work

In 2009, Deepika started writing weekly columns for HT City, the lifestyle supplement of Hindustan Times. These columns appear online on social network, Desimartini.[18]
Personal life

In March 2008, Padukone began dating Ranbir Kapoor, her co-star from the film Bachna Ae Haseeno (2008).[19] The couple broke up in November 2009.[20]
Awards and nominations

See also: List of awards and nominations received by Deepika Padukone

Year Film Language Role Notes
2006 Aishwarya Kannada Aishwarya
2007 Om Shanti Om Hindi Shantipriya,
Sandhya (Sandy) Double-Winner, Filmfare Best Female Debut Award &
Sony Head N Shoulders Fresh Face of the Year
Nominated, Filmfare Best Actress Award
2008 Bachna Ae Haseeno Hindi Gayatri
2009 Chandni Chowk to China Hindi Sakhi (Ms. TSM),
Meow Meow (Suzy) Double role
Billu Hindi Herself Special appearance in the song Love Mera Hit Hit
Love Aaj Kal Hindi Meera Pandit Nominated, Filmfare Best Actress Award
Main Aurr Mrs Khanna Hindi Raina Khan Special appearance
Love 4 Ever Telugu Herself Special appearance for an item number
2010 Karthik Calling Karthik Hindi Shonali Mukherjee
Housefull Hindi Sandy Released on 30 April 2010
Khelein Hum Jee Jaan Sey Hindi Kalpana Datta Filming[21]
Break Ke Baad Hindi Aaliya Filming.

Katrina Kaif

Katrina Kaif (Kashmiri: कैटरीना कैफ़ (Devanagari)) (born Katrina Turquotte on 16 July 1984) is a British Indian actress and model who has appeared in Bollywood, Telugu and Malayalam films.

Early life

Kaif was born in Hong Kong to a Muslim Kashmiri father, Mohammed Kaif, and a British mother, Suzzane Turquotte.. Her parents separated when Kaif was very young. Kaif has seven siblings. She was raised in Hawaii, United States and later moved to her mother's home country, England.

At the age of fourteen she was approached by an agent and she began modeling; her first job was for a jewelry campaign. She continued modeling in London, under a contract with the Models 1 Agency and did campaigns for houses, such as La Senza and Arcadius and even walked on the London Fashion Week.
Kaif's London modeling-work led her to discover by London-based filmmaker Kaizad Gustad, who gave her a part in his film Boom (2003). She moved to Mumbai and was offered a number of modeling assignments. However, filmmakers were initially hesitant to sign her because she could not speak Hindi.
Kaif saw success with the 2005 film Sarkar where she played the bit part of Abhishek Bachchan's girlfriend. Her next release, Maine Pyaar Kyun Kiya (2005), where she was paired opposite Salman Khan, earned her the Stardust Breakthrough Performance Award.
In 2007, Kaif appeared in the hit movie Namastey London, wherein she starred as a British-Indian girl alongside Akshay Kumar for the second time after the box office dud Humko Deewana Kar Gaye (2006). Her hit films stride continued with Apne, Partner and Welcome.
In 2008, she played a negative role for the first time in Abbas-Mustan's hit action thriller Race. She played the role of Saif Ali Khan's secretary who is secretly in love with his hostile stepbrother played by Akshay Khanna. Kaif's second release of the year was Anees Bazmee's production Singh Is Kinng, opposite Akshay Kumar. Upon release the film was a big success at the box office. Kaif's final release of the year, Subhash Ghai's Yuvvraaj, was a commercial failure, but its script has made its way into the Library of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts & Sciences for artistic merits, original screenplay with a substance and the film as a whole.
Kaif's first release for 2009, New York, with John Abraham was a critical and commercial success.[10] Kaif's performance was highly appreciated with the critic Taran Adarsh writing, "Katrina gives you the biggest surprise. Known for her glamour roles, Katrina proves that she can deliver if the director and writer offer her a role of substance. She's outstanding. In fact, people will see a new, different Katrina this time." She next appeared in a bit role as a biker chick in the multi starrer action film Blue, popularly known as India's first underwater thriller, performed averagely at the box office. At the year's end, she appeared in Ajab Prem Ki Ghazab Kahani with Ranbir Kapoor and De Dana Dan with Akshay Kumar. Both films were commercial successes.
In the year 2010, she is set to appear in the multi starrer film Raajneeti that opens on 4 June 2010. She is currently filming for Farah Khan's Tees Maar Khan along with Akshay Kumar, which is set to release on 24 December 2010.

2005: Zee Cine Award for Most Promising Debut, Sarkar
2008: IIFA Award for Best Actress, Race
2009: Apsara Award for Best Actress In Supporting Role, Race
2009: IIFA Award for Best Actress, Singh Is Kinng
2009: Stardust Award for Star Of The Year, Singh Is Kinng
2009: Stardust Award for Best Actress In A Negative Role, Race
2010: Screen Award for Best Actor In Popular Category, New York
2010: Stardust Star of the Year Award – Female for New York & Ajab Prem Ki Ghazab Kahani
2010: Filmfare Best Actress Award for New York
2006: Stardust Breakthrough Performance Award (Female), Maine Pyaar Kyun Kiya
2006: Idea Zee F Awards, Fashion Diva of the Year
2008: Zee Cine Awards, British Indian Actor Award
2008: IIFA Awards, Style Diva of the Year
2008: Sabsey Favourite Kaun Awards, Sabsey Favourite Heroine, Singh Is Kinng
2008: Apsara Film Producers Guild of India Awards, Style Diva of the Year
2009: Rajiv Gandhi Award
2009: Golden Kela Awards, Dara Singh Award for the Worst Accent
2009: Sabsey Favourite Kaun Awards, Sabsey Favourite Heroine
2009: ASSOCHAM Award, Performing Excellence
2010: Star Screen Awards, Entertainer of the year
2010: Stardust Awards, Best Actress - Popular Award for New York & Ajab Prem Ki Ghazab Kahani


Year Film Role Notes
2003 Boom Rina Kaif/Popdi Chinchpokli
2004 Malliswari Princess Malliswari Telugu film
2005 Sarkar Pooja
Maine Pyaar Kyun Kiya Sonia
Allari Pidugu Shwetha Telugu film
2006 Hum Ko Deewana Kar Gaye Jia A. Yashvardhan
Balram vs. Taradas Supriya Malayalam film
2007 Namastey London Jasmeet Malhotra (Jazz)
Apne Nandini
Partner Priya Jaisingh
Welcome Sanjana Shetty
2008 Race Sophia
Singh Is Kinng Sonia
Hello The Storyteller/God Cameo
Yuvvraaj Anushka Banton
2009 New York Maya Nominated, Filmfare Best Actress Award
Blue Nikki Cameo
Ajab Prem Ki Ghazab Kahani Jennifer (Jenny)
De Dana Dan Anjali Kakkad
2010 Raajneeti Indu Pratap Post-production
Tees Maar Khan Filming
Zindagi Milegi Na Dobara Pre-production
Untitled Anurag Basu Project Pre-production
Aarakshan Pre-production

Mehr Jesia

Mehr Jesia (born August 11, 1969), known since her marriage as Mehr Rampal, was an international model from India during the early 1990's. She won the Miss India contest in 1986. She is married to Bollywood actor Arjun Rampal and currently runs a model management agency

Early life

Jesia was born into a Parsi family in 1969.
Modeling Career

Mehr was discovered in 1986 when photographer Faroukh Jussawalla suggested that she take part in the Miss India contest. A week later she took the title, and went on to represent her country in the Miss Universe 1986 pageant. As part of a sponsorship deal, Mehr had to work with Bombay Dyeing for a year after the contest at no charge. She has attributed much of her career trajectory since that first year to Mickey Contractor. According to her, "He never let me look the same in any two campaigns."[citation needed]. Her first ad film was for Lakme's winter creme campaign. Her other campaigns include Vimal, Bombay Dyeing, OCM, Nivea, Palmolive, Gleem, Forhans, Philips and Campa Cola.

Film career

Mehr and Arjun Rampal produced the film I See You (released on 29 December 2006) through their production company Chasing Ganesha. The film starred Arjun Rampal, Vipasha Agarwal, Sonali Kulkarni and Boman Irani.
Look more Products from Go daddy just log on

Marisa Miller

Marisa Lee Miller, (born August 6, 1978) is an American model best known for her appearances in the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issues, and her work for lingerie retailer Victoria's Secret. After a stint shooting with photographer Mario Testino for fashion magazines like Vogue, Miller began working for both companies in 2002. In 2007, she became a Victoria's Secret Angel, and graced the cover of the 2008 Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue to record-setting numbers. Her accomplishments have led to her being dubbed the "return of the great American supermodel."
She is also known for contracts with companies like Harley-Davidson and for ranking #1 on Maxim magazine's 2008 "Hot 100" list. Aside from modeling, she is an ambassador for the American Cancer Society.

Early life

Born Marisa Lee Bertetta in Santa Cruz, California, to parents Marc and Krista Bertetta. Miller attended high school at Aptos High and Monte Vista Christian School. She considered herself a tomboy growing up, with mostly male friends and little awareness of anything girly. Out of shyness, she often wore large t-shirts to hide her body and would get fully dressed just to go to the trash-can while at the beach.
Miller was first "discovered" at age sixteen walking through a San Francisco café by two Italian modeling agents.After talking to her mother, she was on a plane to Italy with her mother a few months later, despite her "shy and conservative" personality.Miller gained attention when 1997 she appeared in the first issue of Perfect 10 magazine. Although she came in third behind Ashley Degenford and Monica Hansen in Perfect 10 magazine's first annual model search, she was repeatedly showcased in following issues, including the covers of the Winter 1998 and August/September 1999 editions, as well as a reprint for the Fall 2004 edition cover.


Miller moved from a start as an amateur magazine model to high profile mainstream work after an acquaintance showed a picture of her to famed fashion photographer Mario Testino in 2001. Testino asked to meet Miller, who was running a surf school at the time, and was invited to Manhattan Beach, California, where she would be surfing.
Noticing her, Testino snapped pictures of her and approached her with a job offer. It turned out to be editorials for both the American and Italian editions of Vogue. Within six months, Miller was working for Victoria's Secret and the coveted Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue, in which she appeared in every issue from 2002 to 2008. In particular, she famously posed wearing only an iPod in the 2007 issue.She has also appeared in a diverse range of magazines, many of them international editions, such as GQ, Maxim, Glamour, Cosmopolitan, Marie Claire, Elle, and Vanity Fair,. She has featured in advertisements for Nordstrom, J.Crew, Guess?, Tommy Hilfiger, Pepsi, Panasonic, Bath & Body Works, True Religion jeans, and motorcycle company Harley-Davidson.She first partnered with Harley-Davidson to launch the VRSCF V-Rod Muscle motorcycle in 2008 and rejoined in November 2009 to act as the face and spokesmodel of the company's first "Military Appreciation Month" campaign, featuring Miller as a classic pin-up in military-themed advertisements and online content.In July 2008, Miller took her first step beyond modeling when her shoe line with skateboarder/surfer-oriented company Vans launched.

Miller backstage at the Fashion for Relief show, a charity event in aid of victims of Hurricane Katrina.
Miller's first work in television was as a judge on the Bravo reality series Manhunt: The Search for America's Most Gorgeous Male Model in 2004, the same year she appeared in Puddle of Mudd's "Spin You Around" music video. 2007 brought appearances in the pilot episode and finale of VH1's reality show The Shot and cameos in HBO's Entourage and the CBS comedy How I Met Your Mother, the latter with her fellow Victoria's Secret Angels. In 2009, she had a guest judge role on an episode of America's Next Top Model and a minor role in an episode of Gary Unmarried. It wasn't until 2007 that she filmed her first television commercial for Victoria's Secret, appearing alongside Heidi Klum for the It bra. Miller starred in a 2008 viral video on YouTube with All Star baseball player Ryan Braun for Remington's ShortCut hair clippersand has appeared in commercials for the NFL Network and the California Travel and Tourism Commission's "Visit California" campaign.
On December 4, 2007, Miller made her debut in the Victoria's Secret Fashion Show, and opened a segment in the following year's edition. Other runway credits of Miller's include 2007's Fashion for Relief show, benefiting victims of Hurricane Katrina,[2] as well as MTV's Fashionably Loud, Imitation of Christ, Inca, and Amir Slama's Rosa Cha, for which she was one of the most anticipated models.
On the February 12, 2008 episode of The Late Show with David Letterman, it a three-story billboard in New York City was revealed to show that Miller would grace the cover of that year's Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue. The tandem online launch of the issue drew record page views to the SI website: 228 million, a 41% increase over 2007. In September 2008, Sports Illustrated released a "Best of Marisa Miller" swimsuit calendar for the 2009 year.
Victoria's Secret also put her to work in 2008, with a five-city tour to promote the 2008 Swim collection's release in stores; the April-May tour included stops in New York City, Miami, Chicago (where she threw the opening pitch at a Chicago Cubs baseball game), Boston, and Minneapolis. The relaunch of Victoria Secret's sports line, VSX, soon followed, along with her first official campaign as an Angel:promoting the company's fragrance Very Sexy Dare.
External images
Harlequin Bra Low Resolution
Harlequin Bra High Resolution
Images provided by Victoria's Secret Press room.
For the 2009 Victoria's Secret Fashion Show, Miller was chosen to wear the year's "Fantasy Bra," a harlequin design featuring 2,300 white, champagne, and cognac diamonds, and a 16-carat heart-shaped brown-yellow diamond pendant for a $3-million value and 150 total carats.
In response to claims that Miller had parted with Victoria's Secret in January 2010, the Chief Marketing Officer for Limited Brands responded, saying the claims were "unfounded and untrue" while adding "we adore Marisa and we will continue to work with her in the future."

Media recognition

The swell in publicity resulting from her 2008 work served to land Miller in the number one spot on Maxim magazine's "Hot 100" rankings for 2008, beating out list regulars such as Scarlett Johansson, Jessica Biel, and Eva Longoria-Parker. This marked the first time anyone has debuted on the list in the number one position. In her subsequent cover story for the July issue, Maxim proclaimed her as the "return of the great American supermodel." Of such acclaim, Miller admits, "I get a kick out of it, but it would be stupid to let it go to my head. It’s modeling—I didn’t find the cure for cancer." Miller continued to be highly rated and appeared on the list in 2009 in 18th place, and in 2010 in 10th place.
She also finished first place in The Best Damn Sports Show Period "Smokin' Sixteen" competition in 2008,[25] repeating her 2007 win over competitors such as Gisele Bündchen and Adriana Lima. Miller ranked second in AskMen.com's "Top 99" for 2010, after ranking third in 2009, ninth in 2008, twelfth in 2007, and fourteenth in 2006. She added to her popular accolades with the "Hot N' Fresh" award at the second annual Spike Guys' Choice Awards.
In 2010, Miller was ranked the third "Most Beautiful Woman" by British magazine FHM in the 16th of the annual poll. Miller came in behind actress Megan Fox in second place, and British singer Cheryl Cole in first place.

Personal life

She married Jim Miller, a Los Angeles surfing contest promoter and lifeguard from California in 2000. The couple separated in 2002, they divorced soon after. She married music producer Griffin Guess on April 15, 2006.
From an early age she loved surfing and her aunt was on the pro tour. In 2004, she placed second in the celebrity division of the Kelly Slater Surf Invitational and says of the sport, "I feel my absolute best—physically, mentally and spiritually—when I'm surfing every day." She also won the most valuable player award at the 4th annual Celebrity Beach Bowl. She was a standout volleyball player in high school and has taken up boxing. After signing with Harley Davidson, Miller received her motorcycle license and rides a Harley Nightster. She has said that she would like to be a sportscaster. Miller comes from a family of nurses, her mother went back to college late in life to become a pediatrics nurse and her sisters are also nurses, and she has previously expressed an interest in following the same career path if she stops modeling.
As of 2009, Miller is an ambassador for the American Cancer Society. Proceeds from her online store are donated to the charity. She also supports the Young Survival Coalition, which raises awareness of breast cancer in women under 40, as well as environmental organization the Surfrider Foundation, which aims to preserve the world's oceans and beaches. In October 2009, Miller hosted the Monte Foundation music festival, an annual fundraiser for schools in the Aptos area, where she and Guess own a home.