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Friday, June 17, 2011

Savannah (cat)

Savannah is a hybrid domestic cat breed. It is a cross between a serval and a domestic cat. The first was bred with a Siamese.

Ownership laws
Laws governing ownership of Savannah cats in the United States vary according to state. The majority of states follow the code set by the United States Department of Agriculture which defines wild/domesticated hybrid crosses as domesticated. Some states have set more restrictive laws on hybrid cat ownership, including, but not limited to: Hawaii, Massachusetts, and Georgia. See HybridLaw.com for specific state-by-state laws regarding ownership of Savannah cats. Some cities may invoke laws that differ from the state. For example, Savannahs more than five generations from the Serval are allowed to be owned in New York state, but not in the city of New York.
The Australian Federal government has banned the importation into Australia of the Savannah cat, as the larger cats could potentially threaten species of the country's native wildlife not threatened by smaller domestic cats. A government report into the proposed importation of the cats has warned the hybrid breed may introduce enhanced hunting skills and increased body size into feral cat populations, putting native species at risk. The report states that the Savannah cats are not worth the risk.

Physical features
Savannah cats are one of the larger breeds of domesticated cats. The savannah's tall and slim build gives the appearance of greater size than their actual weight. Size is very dependent on generation and sex, with F1 hybrid male cats usually being the largest. F1 hybrid and F2 hybrids are usually the largest, due to the stronger genetic influence of the African Serval ancestor. A female F1 Savannah Cat named "Scarlett's Magic," measuring 45.9 centimeters or 18.1 inches from shoulder to toe, is the tallest domestic cat in the world, and measuring 108.5 centimeters or 42.7 inches from nose to tail. Male Savannahs tend to be larger than females. It is possible for early generation Savannahs to weigh up to 20 lbs or more, with the higher weight usually attributed to the F2 or F3 neutered males, though this is not the norm. Later generation Savannahs are usually between 10 to 15 lbs. Because of the random factors in Savannah hybrid genetics, there can be significant variation in size, even in one litter.
The coat of a Savannah depends a lot on the breed of cat used for the domestic cross. Early generations have some form of dark spotting on a lighter coat, and many early breeders employed "wild" looking spotted breeds such as the Bengal and Egyptian Mau for the cross to help preserve these markings in later generations. The International Cat Association (TICA) breed standard calls for brown spotted tabby (cool to warm brown, tan or gold with black or dark brown spots), silver spotted tabby (silver coat with black or dark grey spots), black (black with black spots), and black smoke (black tipped silver with black spots) only.In addition, the Savannah can come in nonstandard variations such as the classic or marble patterns, snow coloration (point), and blue or other diluted colors derived from domestic sources of cat coat genetics. Most breeders are trying to cull these non-standard colours out of the gene-pool, by selling non-standard coloured cats as pets, but some Savannah Breeders are interested in working with these colours to introduce them as new traits.
The overall look of an individual Savannah depends greatly on generation, with higher-percentage Savannah cats often having a more "wild" look. The domestic breed that is used will influence appearance as well. The domestic out-crosses for the Savannah breed that are permissible in TICA are the Egyptian Mau, the Ocicat, the Oriental Shorthair, and the Domestic Shorthair. In addition, some Savannah breeders use "non-permissible" breeds or mixes such as Bengal (for size and vivid spotting) and Maine Coon cats (for size) for the domestic parentage, but these "non-permissible" outcrosses can bring many unwanted genes as well. Outcrosses are rarely used these days, as there are now many fertile males available, and as a result, most breeders are exclusively doing Savannah-to-Savannah breedings. The main exception would be when using a Serval to produce F1 cats, and even then breeders prefer to use a Savannah with the Serval, rather than a non-savannah female.
A Savannah's wild look is often due to the presence of many distinguishing Serval characteristics. Most prominent of these include the various color markings, tall deeply-cupped wide rounded erect ears, very long legs, fat puffy nose and hooded eyes. The bodies of Savannahs are long and leggy—when a Savannah is standing, their hind-end is often higher than their prominent shoulders. The small head is taller than wide, and they have a long slender neck. The backs of the ears have ocelli, a central light band bordered by black, dark grey or brown, giving an eye-like effect. The short tail has black rings, with a solid black tip. The eyes are blue as a kitten (as in other cats), and may be green, brown, gold or a blended shade as an adult. The eyes have a "boomerang" shape, with a hooded brow to protect them from harsh sunlight. Ideally, black or dark "tear-streak" or "cheetah tear" markings run from the corner of the eyes down the sides of the nose to the whiskers, much like that of a cheetah.
Most F1 generation Savannahs will possess many or all of these traits, while their presence often diminishes in later generations. Being a newly developing, hybridized-breed of cats, appearance can vary far more than cat owners may be used to.

Reproduction and genetics
As Savannahs are produced by crossbreeding Servals and domestic cats, each generation of Savannahs is marked with a filial number. For example, the cats produced directly from a Serval/domestic Cat cross are the F1 generation, and they are 50% serval. F1 generation Savannahs are very difficult to produce, due to the significant difference in gestation periods between the Serval and a domestic cat (75 days for a Serval and 65 days for a domestic cat), and sex chromosomes. Pregnancies are often absorbed or aborted, or kittens are born prematurely. Also, Servals can be very picky in choosing mates, and often will not mate with a domestic cat.

Savannah F3 at 1 year
F1 Savannahs can be as high as 75% Serval. 75% F1's are normally the offspring of a 50% F1 female bred back to a Serval. There have been cases of 87.5% F1 Savannah cats but fertility is questionable at those percent Serval levels. More common than a 75% F1 is a 62.5% F1 which is the product of an "F2A" (25% Serval, female) bred back to a Serval. The F2 generation, which has a Serval grandparent and is the offspring of the F1 generation female, ranges from 25% to 37.5% Serval. The F3 generation has a Serval great grandparent, and is 12.5% Serval.
A Savannah/Savannah cross may also be referred to by breeders as SVxSV (SV is the TICA code for the Savannah breed), in addition to the filial number. Savannah generation filial numbers also have a letter designator that refers to the generation of SV to SV breeding. The letters are A, B, C and SBT. A designation of A means that one parent is a Savannah and the other is an outcross. B is used for both parents are Savannahs with one of then being an "A". "C" is both parents are Savannahs and one of them is a "B". Therefore A x (any SV) = B; B x (B,C,SBT) = C; C x (C, SBT) = SBT, SBT x SBT = SBT. F1 generations Savannahs are always A since the father is a non-domestic outcross (the Serval father). F2 generation can be A or B. F3 generation can be A, B or C. F4 Generation is the first generation that can be a SBT. SBT stands for "stud book tradition" and is considered a "purebred" cat.
Being Hybrids, Savannahs typically exhibit some characteristics of hybrid inviability. Because the male Savannah is the heterozygous sex, they are most commonly affected, in accordance with Haldane's rule. Male Savannahs are typically larger in size and sterile until the F5 generation or so, although the females are fertile from the F1 generation. Currently (2011) breeders are starting to notice a resurgence in sterility in males at the F5 and F6 generation. Presumably this is due to the higher serval percentage in C and SBT cats. The problem may also be compounded by the secondary non-domestic genes coming from the Asian Leopard Cat in the Bengal outcrosses that were used heavily in the foundation of the breed.
Females of the F1-F3 generation are usually held back for breeding, with only the males being offered as pets. The reverse occurs when you reach F5-F7 generation, but to a lesser degree, with the males being held as breeding cats, and females primarily offered as pets.

Savannahs are commonly compared to dogs in their loyalty, and they will follow their owners around the house like a canine. They can also be trained to walk on a leash, and even fetch.
Savannahs often greet people with head-butts, or an unexpected pounce. Some Savannahs are reported to be very social and friendly with new people and with other cats and dogs, while others may run and hide or revert to hissing and growling when seeing a stranger. Exposure to other people and pets is most likely the key factor in sociability as the Savannah kitten grows up.
Owners of Savannahs say that they are very impressed with the intelligence of this breed of cat.[citation needed] An often-noted trait of the Savannah is its jumping ability. Savannahs are known to jump up on top of doors, refrigerators and high cabinets. Some Savannahs can leap about 8 feet (2.5 m) high from a standing position. Savannahs are very inquisitive, and have been known to get into all sorts of things. They often learn how to open doors and cupboards, and anyone buying a Savannah will likely need to take special precautions to prevent the cat from getting into things.
Many Savannah cats do not fear water, and will play or even immerse themselves in water. Some owners even shower with their Savannah cats. Presenting a water bowl to a Savannah may also prove a challenge, as some will promptly begin to "bat" all the water out of the bowl until it is empty, using their front paws.
Another quirk Savannahs have is to fluff out the base of their tail in a greeting gesture. This is not to be confused with the fluffing of fur along the back and full length of the tail in fear. Savannahs will also often flick or wag their tails in excitement or pleasure.
Vocally, Savannahs may either chirp like their Serval fathers, meow like their domestic mothers, or do both, sometimes producing sounds which are a mixture of the two. Chirping is observed more often in earlier generations. Savannahs may also "hiss"—a Serval-like hiss quite different from a domestic cat's hiss, sounding more like a very loud snake. It can be alarming to humans not acquainted to such a sound coming from a cat.

Health considerations
Different individuals contain different amounts of Serval and of varied domestic cat breeds, and there are currently no established Savannah breed-specific health issues.
Some veterinarians have noted that Servals have smaller livers relative to their body size than domestic cats, and some Savannahs inherit this. For this reason, care is advised in prescribing some medications. Lower doses per weight of the cat may be necessary. In addition, the blood values of Savannahs may vary from the typical domestic cat, due to the serval genes.
There is anecdotal evidence, though no completed scientific studies, that Savannahs and other domestic hybrids (such as Bengals) do not respond well to anesthesia containing Ketamine. Many Savannah breeders request in their contracts that Ketamine not be used for surgeries.
Some (but not all) Savannah breeders believe strongly that modified live vaccines should not be used on Savannahs, that only killed virus vaccines should be used. Others are the complete opposite, having had poor reactions to killed vaccines, and no vaccine reaction (lethargy, illness, etc) to the modified live vaccines. This, also, has not been studied, and opinions vary widely from breeder to breeder.
Some breeders state that Savannah cats have no known special care or food requirements, while others recommend a very high quality diet with no grains or by-products. Some recommend a partial or complete raw feeding/raw food diet with at least 32% protein and no by-products. Some Savannah breeders recommend calcium and other supplements, especially for growing cats and earlier generations. Others consider it unnecessary, or even harmful. Most Savannah breeders agree that Savannahs have a need for more taurine than the average domestic cat, and therefore recommend taurine supplement which can be added to any food type. Issues of Savannah diet are not without controversy, and again, it is best to seek the advice of a veterinarian or exotic cat specialist before feeding a Savannah cat any non-standard diet.

Savannah cat is the name given to the offspring of a domestic cat and a serval—a medium-sized, large-eared wild African cat. The unusual cross became popular among breeders at the end of the 20th century, and in 2001 the International Cat Association accepted it as a new registered breed. Savannahs are much more social than typical domestic cats, and they are often compared to dogs in their loyalty. They can be trained to walk on a leash and even taught to play fetch.
Bengal breeder Judee Frank crossbred a male Serval, belonging to Suzi Woods, with a Siamese (domestic cat) to produce the first Savannah cat (named Savannah) on April 7, 1986. Frank’s Savannah attracted the interest of Patrick Kelley, who purchased one of Savannah's kittens in 1989. Kelley was one of the first enthusiasts who worked towards establishing a new domestic breed based on a serval/domestic cat cross. He approached many serval breeders to help in the development of this new breed, and finally garnered the help of breeder Joyce Sroufe to work with him in taking the steps needed to have the new breed recognized.
In 1996, Patrick Kelley and Joyce Sroufe wrote the original version of the Savannah breed standard, and presented it to the board of The International Cat Association. In 2001, the board accepted the breed for registration.
2010 brought a significant event for the breed, when the first female F1 Savannah was born and bred in the UK by Rosanne Boyle of Hotspotexotics, named "Amazing Grace" she was registered with TICA (The International Cat Association). From 2006, the breed has seen significant growth throughout the UK, as a result of the breed being so well received.

Padma Lakshmi said daughter Krishna is `eating and talking

Any number of television's competition shows seem to take special — perhaps sadistic — pleasure in dispatching their also-rans to reality's netherworlds. "The Apprentice" sends the defeated off with "You're fired!," the vanquished in "Survivor" have their torches snuffed out and the unlucky in love on "The Bachelor" are left without a single red rose.

"Top Chef" has its own exit strategy — "Please pack your knives and go," host Padma Lakshmi gently tells the culinary castoffs — but like the small group of reality shows that celebrate artistry more than delight in failure, the cooking series succeeds best when its contestants excel at the task at hand. Tellingly, the single episode from "Top Chef All-Stars" that the show's producers submitted for this year's Emmy Award concluded with an exceptional twist — not a single chef was sent home.

Speaking about her daughter, she said to OK! magazine: 'She's great. She's growing, she's eating and talking up a storm.'
Asked about her milestones, she added: 'Just the usual. She's a really good eater, which I'm really happy about. She likes black-eyed peas and kale. Just the normal stuff.

"Top Chef" has done well enough in the ratings and in popular culture that it has spun off in numerous directions: There's "Top Chef: Just Desserts" and "Top Chef: Masters," a planned "Top Chef Juniors," several "Top Chef" cookbooks, a board game, knife sets and aprons.

In the recently concluded eighth season of "Top Chef," the show for the first time created an all-star hybrid. It's a realm that lies halfway between the regular competition, largely populated with up-and-coming chefs (some of whom can scarcely fillet a fish), and its spinoff "Top Chef Masters," which features established luminaries operating at the highest end of cooking.

By picking only highly placed runners-up from its earlier seasons, the makers of "Top Chef All-Stars" risked creating something that was neither fish nor fowl: There might be no epic flameouts, as is the case in the regular "Top Chef," nor the kind of eye-popping virtuosity that's a staple of "Top Chef All-Stars.

Thursday, June 16, 2011

Padma Lakshmi

Padma Parvati Lakshmi, പത്മ ലക്ഷ്മി, Patmā Pārvati Lakshumi born September 1, 1970) also Padma, Lady Rushdie is an Indian American cookbook author, actress, and model. She has been the host of the US reality television program Top Chef since season two in 2006. In 2010, Top Chef was nominated for an Emmy Award and won for Outstanding Reality-Competition Program.

Personal life
On April 17, 2004, in New York City, Lakshmi married the novelist Salman Rushdie, to whom she was introduced at a party in 1999 hosted by the journalist and editor Tina Brown. On July 2, 2007, the couple filed for divorce. She is the model for one of the central characters — and love interests — in Rushdie's novel Fury (a novel dedicated to her as well).
On October 1, 2009, after years of struggling with a gynaecological medical illness known as endometriosis, a condition that causes pelvic pain and has been associated with infertility, Lakshmi confirmed that she was pregnant. Lakshmi also co-founded The Endometriosis Foundation of America, which is a nonprofit organization focused on increasing awareness, education, research, and legislative advocacy against the disease On February 20, 2010, Lakshmi gave birth to a baby girl named Krishna Thea Lakshmi. Although the father's identity was not initially given, it was later revealed to be Adam Dell. In January 2011, Dell sued Lakshmi for full custody of their daughter.
Lakshmi was brought up as a vegetarian and has admitted that because of this, she sometimes becomes "squeamish" when sampling other cultural delicacies. However, in 2009, she starred in a television advertisement created by Mendelsohn Zien Advertising for the Carl's Jr. restaurant chain eating a Western Bacon Cheeseburger and in her second cookbook Tangy, Tart, Hot and Sweet she credits the chain with bringing her away from vegetarianism during her teenage years.

Early life
Padma Lakshmi was born in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India to a Palghat Iyer father who was a Pfizer executive and his first wife Vijaya, a nurse who specialized in suicide prevention. She grew up shuttling between her grandparents in Chennai and her mother in New York. She was her parents' only child from this marriage. Her parents separated when she was one and divorced a year later. Both parents later remarried, and Lakshmi has a younger paternal half-brother and half-sister. The latter formerly worked as an actress and classical dancer but is now pursuing a career with children with special needs. In an interview in The Guardian, Lakshmi said, "My father had quit his job as an executive at Pfizer to manage her career. That was kind of like rubbing salt in the wound. I didn't understand why he wanted that relationship with her, and not with me.
In 1984, when she was 14 years old, Padma was in a car accident in Malibu, causing an injury to her right arm that required surgery, which left a 7-inch scar between her elbow and shoulder. The incident happened on a Sunday afternoon as Padma was being driven home from a Hindu temple in Malibu. She remembers a flash of orange, looking over to see the large car upon her. Padma describes the event in the April 2001 edition of Vogue, saying, "Being in a car crash was like an exhilarating hallucination, an unbelievable moment that oddly remains one of the most beautiful images in my memory. The car left Padma with injuries that included a fractured right hip and a shattered upper right arm.

Lakshmi went to Workman High School in the City of Industry, California. Lakshmi is a 1992 graduate of Clark University in Worcester, Massachusetts, USA, where she received a B.A. with honors in Theatre Arts.
She speaks English, Tamil, Hindi, Italian and Spanish.

Lakshmi's career began at age 16, when she was discovered by a modeling agent in India while sitting in a café. As she has stated, "I was the first Indian model to have a career in Paris, Milan and New York. I'm the first one to admit that I was a novelty. She became more popular with her nude poses
She has modeled for top designers such as Emanuel Ungaro, Ralph Lauren, and Alberta Ferretti and appeared in ad campaigns for Roberto Cavalli and Versus. She was a favorite model of the photographer Helmut Newton, whose photographs of her often highlighted the large scar on her right arm.
She has appeared on the cover of RedBook, Vogue India,FHM, Cosmopolitan, L'Officiel India, Asian Woman, Avenue, Industry Magazine, Marie Claire (India Edition), Harper's Bazaar, Town & Country, and Newsweek. Lakshmi also posed nude for the May 2009 issue of Allure magazine.

Her first cookbook Easy Exotic was awarded Best First Book at the 1999 World Cookbook Awards at Versailles. She was host of the Food Network series, Padma's Passport, which was part of the larger series Melting Pot, in 2001. She also hosted two one-hour specials on India and Spain for the British culinary tourism show Planet Food, which have been broadcast on the Food Network in the US and internationally on the Discovery Channels. Her second cookbook, Tangy, Tart, Hot and Sweet, was released October 2, 2007.

Movies and television
Lakshmi had a comical supporting role as the lip synching disco singer Sylk in the 2001 American movie Glitter with Mariah Carey. She starred with Amitabh Bachchan and Jackie Shroff in the 2003 Hindi action film Boom as Shiela Bardez, one of a trio of super models accused of stealing diamonds. Lakshmi was last seen on screen with Aishwarya Rai and Dylan McDermott, as Geeta in Paul Mayeda Berges' 2005 film The Mistress of Spices. She will be starring[citation needed] in Deepa Mehta's upcoming film, Komagata Maru which was earlier titled Exclusion.
Lakshmi made a 2002 guest appearance as alien princess Kaitaama in "Precious Cargo", the 37th episode of the science fiction TV series Star Trek: Enterprise. She was also hostess of Domenica In, Italy's top-rated television show. She portrayed Sean Bean's nemesis in the 2004-2005 iTV TV series Sharpe's Challenge. In 2006, Lakshmi appeared in ABC's TV series The Ten Commandments with Dougray Scott, Naveen Andrews, and Omar Sharif. She took over as host of the popular TV cooking competition series Top Chef in 2006 during its second season and has continued every season since then.
Since her Tamil pronunciation is spot on, in an interview she was asked whether she will do any Tamil films in future. Lakshmi said such an offer would be cool and she also said that she would love to meet Kamal Haasan.

Music video
In 2009, Lakshmi starred in the Eels video for the song "That Look You Give That Guy" playing the love interest of Mark Oliver Everett.

Jewelry design
Combining her culinary and fashion style tastes, Lakshmi launched her first line of jewellery in 2009. Entitled "Padma", the first collection consisted of forty pieces.


Year              Film                Type                      Role
1995 Unzipped Documentary (High Fashion) Herself
1997 Linda e il brigadiere
ep: "Il fratello di Linda" TV Series (Italian, Comedy) Indian Lady
1998 Il Figlio di Sandokan TV Series (Italian, Drama)
1999 Caraibi TV Series (Italian, Adventure) Malinche
2000 Planet Food Documentary (Cooking) Host
2001 Glitter Film (US, Drama) Sylk
Melting Pot: Padma's Passport TV Series (US, Cooking) Host
2002 Star Trek: Enterprise
episode: "Precious Cargo" TV Series (US, Sci-Fi) Kaitaama
2003 Boom Film (Indian, Drama) Shiela Bardez
2005 The Mistress of Spices Film (Drama) Geeta
2006 The Ten Commandments TV Series (US, Biblical) Princess Bithia
episode: "Sharpe's Challenge" TV Series (Action/History/War) Madhuvanthi
2006–present Top Chef TV Series (US, Reality/Cooking) Host
2009 30 Rock TV Series (US, Comedy) Herself

Research In Motion

Research In Motion Limited (RIM) TSX: RIM, NASDAQ: RIMM is a Canadian telecommunication and wireless device company best known as the developer of the BlackBerry smartphone.
RIM is headquartered in Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. It was founded by Mike Lazaridis, who currently serves as its co-CEO along with Jim Balsillie.

Prior to the manufacture of the BlackBerry, RIM worked with RAM Mobile Data and Ericsson to turn the Ericsson-developed Mobitex wireless data network into a two-way paging and wireless e-mail network. Pivotal in this development was the release of the Inter@ctive pager 950, which started shipping in August 1998. About the size of a bar of soap, this device competed against the SkyTel two-way paging network developed by Motorola.
RIM's early development was financed by Canadian institutional and venture capital investors in 1995 through a private placement in the privately-held company. Working Ventures Canadian Fund Inc. led the first venture round with a C$5,000,000 investment with the proceeds being used to complete the development of RIM's two-way paging system hardware and software. A total of C$30,000,000 in pre-IPO financing was raised by the company prior to its initial public offering on the Toronto Stock Exchange in January, 1998 under the symbol RIM.
Since then, RIM has released a variety of devices running on GSM, CDMA, and iDEN networks. The ubiquity of these BlackBerry devices in the corporate environment and the compulsive use of its ability to quickly send and receive e-mail has earned it the nickname "Crackberry" in a reference to crack cocaine as users feel they cannot live without it.
In 2006 Research In Motion and Information Appliance Associates reached a licensing agreement whereby RIM would offer the complete version of PocketMac for BlackBerry to Macintosh users free of charge.
In October 2008, RIM was named one of "Canada's Top 100 Employers" by Mediacorp Canada Inc., and was featured in Maclean's newsmagazine.
RIM announced in February 2009 that they were expanding their global operations by opening an office and training facility in North Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Just across the Harbour Bridge, ten minutes from the Sydney CBD, the new RIM offices were formally unveiled by Mr Thomas A.MacDonald, Consul General of Canada, at a ceremony attended by dignitaries from the New South Wales Government and North Sydney Council, as well as RIM’s partners and customers. The new office features training facilities, a research and development centre, a strategic partner marketing centre and technical support services. Total workforce provides 12,000 jobs world wide.
In June 2009 RIM has announced they were acquiring Dash Navigation, makers of the Dash Express. In August 2009, RIM acquired Torch Mobile, enabling the inclusion of a Webkit-based browser on their Blackberry devices.
On 18 August 2009, Fortune Magazine named RIM as the fastest growing company in the world with a growth of 84% in profits over three years despite the recession.
On March 26, 2010, the company announced acquisition of BlackBerry applications developer Viigo, a Toronto-based company. Terms of the deal were not disclosed.
RIM reached an agreement with Harman International on April 12, 2010, for RIM to acquire QNX Software Systems. "RIM is excited about the planned acquisition of QNX Software Systems and we look forward to ongoing collaboration between Harman, QNX and RIM to further integrate and enhance the user experience between smartphones and in-vehicle audio and infotainment systems," said Mike Lazaridis, President and Co-CEO at RIM. "In addition to our interests in expanding the opportunities for QNX in the automotive sector and other markets, we believe the planned acquisition of QNX will also bring other value to RIM in terms of supporting certain unannounced product plans for intelligent peripherals, adding valuable intellectual property to RIM's portfolio and providing long-term synergies for the companies based on the significant and complementary OS expertise that exists within the RIM and QNX teams today."
On September 27, 2010, RIM announced the long rumoured BlackBerry PlayBook tablet computer. The BlackBerry PlayBook was officially released to US and Canadian consumers on April 19th, 2011.
As of May 2010, RIM OS held 10.4% of the smartphone operating system market.

Year Sales Operating Income Net Income
2002  294,000,000 (58,000,000) (28,000,000)
2003 307,000,000 (64,000,000) (149,000,000)
2004 595,000,000 78,000,000 52,000,000
2005 1,350,000,000 386,000,000 206,000,000
2006 2,066,000,000 617,000,000 375,000,000
2007 3,037,000,000 807,000,000 632,000,000
2008 6,009,000,000 1,731,000,000 1,294,000,000
2009 11,065,000,000 2,722,000,000 1,893,000,000
2010 14,953,000,000 3,507,000,000 2,457,000,000
2011 19,907,000,000 4,639,000,000 3,411,000,000

Patent litigation
Since the turn of the century, RIM has been embroiled in a series of suits relating to alleged patent infringement.
In 2001, Research In Motion sued competitor Glenayre Electronics Inc for patent infringement, partly in response to an earlier infringement suit filed by Glenayre against RIM. RIM sought an injunction to prevent Glenayre from infringing on RIM's "Single Mailbox Integration" patent. The suit was ultimately settled.
In June 2002, Research In Motion filed suit against 2000 start-up and competitor Good Technology. RIM filed additional complaints through-out the year. In March 2004, Good agreed to a licensing deal, thereby settling the outstanding litigation.
On September 16, 2002, Research In Motion was awarded a patent pertaining to keyboard design on hand-held e-mail devices. Upon receiving the patent, it proceeded to sue Handspring over its Treo device.Handspring eventually agreed to license RIM's patent and avoid further litigation in November of the same year.
During the appeals, RIM discovered new prior art that raised a "substantial new question of patentability" and filed for a reexamination of the NTP patents in the United States Patent and Trademark Office. That reexamination was conducted separately to the court cases for infringement. In February 2006, the USPTO rejected all of NTP's claims in three disputed patents. NTP has appealed the decision, and the reexamination process is still outgoing as of July 2006 (See NTP, Inc. for details).
On March 3, 2006, RIM announced that it had settled its BlackBerry patent dispute with NTP. Under the terms of the settlement, RIM has agreed to pay NTP US$612.5 million in a “full and final settlement of all claims.” In a statement, RIM said that “all terms of the agreement have been finalized and the litigation against RIM has been dismissed by a court order this afternoon. The agreement eliminates the need for any further court proceedings or decisions relating to damages or injunctive relief.
See also: NTP, Inc.#RIM patent infringement litigation
On July 17, 2003, while still embroiled in litigation with NTP and Good Technology, RIM filed suit against Xerox in the U.S. District of Hartford, Connecticut. The suit was filed in response to discussions about patents held by Xerox that might affect RIM's business, and also asks that patents held by Xerox be invalidated.
On May 1, 2006, RIM was sued by Visto for infringement of four patents. Though the patents were widely considered invalid and in the same veins as the NTP patents - with a judgement going against Visto in the U.K. - RIM settled the lawsuit in the United States on July 16, 2009, with RIM agreeing to pay Visto US$267.5M plus other undisclosed terms.
On January 22, 2010, Motorola requested that all BlackBerry smartphones be banned from being imported into the United States for infringing upon five of Motorola's patents. Their patents for "early-stage innovations", including UI, power management and WiFi, are in question. RIM countersued later the same day, alleging anti-competitive behaviour and that Motorola had broken a 2003 licensing agreement by refusing to extend licensing terms beyond 2008. The companies settled out of court on June 11, 2010.

Alt-N Technologies
Alt-N Technologies, Ltd., a software development company and division of Research In Motion (RIM) founded in 1996 by Arvel Hathcock produces and sells the MDaemon email server for Windows. Alt-N Technologies develops email messaging and security server applications for the medium and small business communities.
Alt-N Technologies’ products are sold and supported internationally through a network of distributors and resellers.

Software Products
MDaemon – Multi-language SMTP/POP3 mail server software.
SecurityGateway – Email spam firewall server software that protects Microsoft Exchange and SMTP Servers from spam and malware.
RelayFax – email-to-fax and fax-to-email server software.

Hardware Products
MDaemon Email Server Appliance – Integrates MDaemon and SecurityPlus for MDaemon software into a single server appliance.

Industry Participation
Online Trust Alliance (OTA)
Domain Assurance Council (DAC)
Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)
Messaging Anti-Abuse Working Group (MAAWG)

Industry Awards
Online Trust Alliance (OTA) 2007 Online Safety Leadership Award.

Certicom Corp. is a cryptography company founded in 1985 by Gordon Agnew, Ron Mullin and Scott Vanstone.
The Certicom intellectual property portfolio includes over 350 patents and patents pending worldwide that cover key aspects of elliptic curve cryptography (ECC): software optimizations, efficient hardware implementations, methods to enhance the security, and various cryptographic protocols.
The National Security Agency (NSA) has licensed 26 of Certicom's ECC patents as a way of clearing the way for the implementation of elliptic curves to protect US and allied government information.
Certicom's current customers include General Dynamics, Motorola, Oracle, Research In Motion and Unisys.
On January 23, 2009, VeriSign entered into an agreement to acquire Certicom. Research In Motion put in a counter-offer, which was deemed superior. VeriSign did not match this offer, and so Certicom announced an agreement to be acquired by RIM,. Upon the completion of this transaction, Certicom became a wholly owned subsidiary of RIM, and was de-listed from the Toronto Stock Exchange on March 25, 2009.

DataViz, Inc. is a software company located in Milford, Connecticut. They sell RoadSync, and MacLinkPlus. MacLinkPlus is a Macintosh program for converting files from one format to another. RoadSync utilizes the Microsoft Exchange ActiveSync protocol to access Exchange information which includes e-mail, calendar and contact information. On 8 September 2010, they sold their office suite Documents To Go and other assets to Research In Motion for $50 million.

The Astonishing Tribe
The Astonishing Tribe (TAT) is a company with headquarters in Malmö, Sweden. Founded in February 2002 by Mikael Tellhed, Ludvig Linge, Paul Blomdahl, Karl-Anders Johansson, Per Grimberg, and Hampus Jakobsson. TAT started out as a hobby project and for the first year the company worked with TV commercials, animation, post production for film, consultancy services within image compression for embedded systems, and interactive art.TAT was acquired by Research in Motion (RIM), the maker of the Blackberry smartphone, on 2 December 2010. They are set to bring "their talent to the BlackBerry PlayBook and smartphone platforms.
During the second year the company got traction in the mobile industry and started to employ people. Focus shifted completely to user interfaces, especially licensing technology for rendering and structuring of the user interface. As of September 2010 over 180 employees work for TAT at the offices in Sweden, South Korea, the United States, and the newly opened office in Japan. TAT works with some of the biggest mobile brands such as Samsung, Sony Ericsson, Orange and, Motorola. TAT also license software to other industries such as automotive and consumer electronics.
Some of the founding members have a history from the demo group Yodel. This group made a contribution to The Party 1996 called The Astonishing Tribe.

RIM stock option scandal settlement
In 2007 Co-CEO Jim Balsillie was forced to resign as chairman as the company announced a $250-million earnings restatement relating to mistakes in how it granted stock options. Furthermore, an internal review found that hundreds of stock-option grants had been backdated, timed to a low share price to make them more lucrative.
In January 2009, Canadian regulators stated that they were seeking a record penalty of $80 million USD from the top two executives, Co-CEOs Jim Balsillie and Mike Lazaridis. Furthermore, the Ontario Securities Commission (OSC) has pushed for Balsillie to pay the bulk of any penalty and relinquish his seat on RIM's board of directors for a period of time.
On February 5, 2009, several executives and directors of Research In Motion agreed to pay the penalties to settle an investigation into the backdating of stock options. The Ontario Securities Commission approved the arrangement in a closed-door meeting.
Under the terms of a settlement agreement with the OSC, RIM co-chief executive officers Jim Balsillie and Mike Lazaridis, as well as chief operating officer Dennis Kavelman, will jointly pay a total of $68-million (CDN) to RIM to reimburse the company for losses from the backdating and for the costs of a long internal investigation. The three are also required to pay $9-million (CDN) to the OSC.
Mr. Balsillie will step down from RIM's board of directors for a year, but will remain in his executive role.

‘Go the F**K To Sleep’ tops NYT bestseller list

Samuel L. Jackson visited CBS' Late Show With David Letterman on Thursday night, where he read a passage from bestselling bawdy kids' book Go the F--k to Sleep.
Jackson narrates the audiobook version, which already has become an Internet sensation.
AUDIO: Werner Herzog Reads 'Go the F--k to Sleep'
The book includes such lines as "The eagles who soar through the sky are at rest, and the creatures who crawl, run and creep. I know you're not thirsty. That's bleep. Stop lying. Lie the bleep down, my darling, and sleep."

Mansbach, who wrote the book after his restless daughter refused to get some shut eye last year, includes nursery rhyme-style language and illustrations in his work. The hardcover book is already a success, but the audio version, narrated by “Snakes on a Plane” actor Samuel L. Jackson, is quite a hit, too. The recording, which contains swear words, has been removed from YouTube.

“I think at some point, she would look at me when I would come in her room, and she’d say, ‘Go the f*** to sleep, Daddy?’ And I’d say, ‘yeah go the f*** to sleep,’” Jackson says in the video.

Award winning parenting blogger Mir Kamin told The Daily Caller that she “shamelessly loves the audio version,” adding that the book should serve as a joke gift rather than an actual storybook you’d set beside the crib or rocking chair.

“Personally, I see this book becoming the quintessential gag baby shower gift, but I hope parents are chuckling about it amongst themselves rather than reading it to their kids,” Kamin told TheDC.
(Muffintop Mommy no more: This Mother’s Day, moms want plastic surgery)

But Kamin noted that cussing in front of kids wouldn’t influence them to hit the hay or develop healthy behavioral habits.

“Using this kind of language with tots who refuse to settle down for the night probably only results in ill-timed and embarrassing comments to their grandparents, not more sleep!” Kamin said.

Samuel L. Jackson

Samuel Leroy Jackson, born December 21, 1948  is an American film and television actor and film producer. After Jackson became involved with the Civil Rights Movement, he moved on to acting in theater at Morehouse College, and then films. He had several small roles such as in the film Goodfellas, Def by Temptation, before meeting his mentor, Morgan Freeman, and the director Spike Lee. After gaining critical acclaim for his role in Jungle Fever in 1991, he appeared in films such as Patriot Games, Amos & Andrew, True Romance and Jurassic Park. In 1994 he was cast as Jules Winnfield in Pulp Fiction, and his performance received several award nominations and critical acclaim.
Jackson has since appeared in over 100 films including Die Hard with a Vengeance, The 51st State, Jackie Brown, Unbreakable, The Incredibles, Black Snake Moan, Shaft, Snakes on a Plane, as well as the Star Wars prequel trilogy and small roles in Quentin Tarantino's Kill Bill Vol. 2 and Inglourious Basterds. He played Nick Fury in Iron Man and Iron Man 2, Thor, the first two of a nine-film commitment as the character for the Marvel Cinematic Universe franchise. Jackson's many roles have made him one of the highest grossing actors at the box office. Jackson has won multiple awards throughout his career and has been portrayed in various forms of media including films, television series, and songs. In 1980, Jackson married LaTanya Richardson, with whom he has one daughter, Zoe.

Early life
Jackson was born in Washington, D.C. He grew up as an only child in Chattanooga, Tennessee with his mother, Elizabeth Jackson (née Montgomery), who was a factory worker and later a supplies buyer for a mental institution, and his maternal grandparents and extended family. His father lived away from the family, in Kansas City, Missouri, and later died from alcoholism; Jackson had only met his father twice during his life. Jackson attended several segregated schools and graduated from Riverside High School in Chattanooga. Between the third and twelfth grades, he played the French horn and trumpet in the school orchestra. Initially intent on pursuing a degree in marine biology, he attended Morehouse College in Atlanta, Georgia. After joining a local acting group to earn extra points in a class, Jackson found an interest in acting and switched his major. Before graduating in 1972, he co-founded the "Just Us Theatre".

Civil Rights Movement involvement
After the 1968 assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr., Jackson attended the funeral in Atlanta as one of the ushers. Jackson then flew to Memphis to join an equal rights protest march. In a Parade interview Jackson revealed: "I was angry about the assassination, but I wasn’t shocked by it. I knew that change was going to take something different — not sit-ins, not peaceful coexistence. In 1969, Jackson and several other students held members of the Morehouse College board of trustees (including a nearby Martin Luther King, Sr.) hostage on the campus, demanding reform in the school's curriculum and governance. The college eventually agreed to change its policy, but Jackson was charged with and eventually convicted of unlawful confinement, a second-degree felony. Jackson was then suspended for two years for his criminal record and his actions (although he would later return to the college to earn his Bachelor of Arts in Drama in 1972).
"I would like to think because of the things I did, my daughter can do the things that she does. She barely has a recognition that she's black."
—Jackson reflecting on his actions during the Civil Rights Movement.
While he was expelled, Jackson was employed as a social worker in Los Angeles. Jackson decided to return to Atlanta, where he met with Stokely Carmichael, H. Rap Brown, and others active in the Black Power movement. Jackson revealed in the same Parade interview that he began to feel empowered with his involvement in the movement, especially when the group began buying guns. However, before Jackson could become involved with any significant armed confrontation, his mother sent him to Los Angeles after the FBI told her that he would die within a year if he remained with the Black Power movement.

Personal life
Jackson married actress LaTanya Richardson in 1980, whom he met while attending Morehouse College. In 2009, the couple started their own charitable organization to help support education. The couple, who live in Los Angeles, California, have a daughter, Zoe, born in 1982. She works as a sports channel producer.
Jackson has revealed in an interview that he sees every one of his movies in theaters with paying customers claiming that "Even during my theater years, I wished I could watch the plays I was in — while I was in them! I dig watching myself work. He also enjoys collecting the action figures of the characters he portrays in his films, including Jules Winnfield, Shaft, Mace Windu, and Frozone. He is a comic book and anime fan.
Jackson is bald, but enjoys wearing unusual wigs in his films. Jackson has reflected on his decision to go bald: "I keep ending up on those bald is beautiful lists. It's cool. You know, when I started losing my hair it was during the era when everybody had lots of hair. ... All of a sudden I felt this big hole in the middle of my afro, I couldn't face having a comb over so I had to quickly figure what the haircut for me was. His first bald role was in The Great White Hype. Jackson usually gets to pick his own hairstyles for each character he portrays. Although he did poke fun at his baldness the first time he appeared bald on The Tonight Show, explaining that he had to shave his head for one role, but then he kept receiving more and more roles afterward, and had to keep shaving his head so wigs could be made for him. Laughingly, he ended the tale by lamenting to Jay Leno, "The only way I'm gonna have time to grow my hair back, is if I'm not workin'!".

Television and other roles
In addition to films, Jackson also appeared in several television shows, a video game, music videos, as well as an audiobook. Jackson had a small part in the Public Enemy music video for "911 Is a Joke". Jackson voiced several television show characters including the lead role in the anime series, Afro Samurai, in addition to a recurring part as the voice of Gin Rummy in several episodes of the animated series The Boondocks. He guest-starred as himself in an episode of the BBC/HBO sitcom Extras. He voiced the main antagonist, Officer Frank Tenpenny, in the video game Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas. Jackson also hosted a variety of awards shows. Thus far, he has hosted the MTV Movie Awards (1998), the ESPYs (1999, 2001, 2002, and 2009), and the Spike TV Video Game Awards (2005, 2006, and 2007). In November 2006, he provided the voice of God for The Bible Experience, the New Testament audiobook version of the Bible. He was given the lead role because producers believed his deep, authoritative voice would best fit the role. For the Atlanta Falcons 2010 season, Samuel L. Jackson portrayed Rev. Sultan in the Falcons "Rise Up" commercial to help improve tickets sales.

Upcoming films
Jackson has several upcoming film projects between 2010 and 2012. In 2001, Jackson gave his consent for Marvel Comics to design their "Ultimate" version of the character Nick Fury after his likeness. In the 2008 film Iron Man, he made a cameo as the character in a post-credit scene. In February 2009, Jackson signed on to a nine-picture deal with Marvel which would see him appear as the character in Iron Man 2, Thor, Captain America: The First Avenger, and The Avengers as well as any other sequels they would produce. He will also appear in xXx: The Return of Xander Cage and was made a part in Tarantino's upcoming film, Django Unchained.
Jackson is involved in another project, titled The Samaritan.

Box office performance
Jackson has said that he chooses roles that are "exciting to watch" and have an "interesting character inside of a story", and that in his roles he wanted to "do things he hasn't done, things he saw as a kid and wanted to do and now has an opportunity to do". Throughout the 1990s, A.C. Neilson E.C.I., a box office tracking company, determined that Jackson appeared in more films than any other actor which grossing $1.7 billion domestically.For all the films in his career, where he is featured as a leading actor or supporting co-star, his films have grossed a total of $2.81 to $4.91 billion at the North American box office, placing him as the seventh (as strictly lead) or the second highest-grossing movie star (counting supporting roles) of all time; behind only that of voice actor Frank Welker. In August 2007, Jackson stated in an interview that he wanted to play a small role in George Lucas's Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull so that he could keep his box office position over Harrison Ford. The 2009 edition of The Guinness World Records, which uses a different calculation to determine film grosses, stated that Jackson is the world's highest grossing actor, having earned $7.42 billion in 68 films.

Tatum O'Neal on How She 'Found' Herself

TORONTO - It may be 35 years old, but Tatum O'Neal says her classic baseball film "The Bad News Bears" has an edge that is absent from many modern movies.
"I think that the '70s was a better time to make movies in general. I just think there was more art and less control," the 47-year-old actress said in an interview to promote her new memoir, "Found: A Daughter's Journey Home."
O'Neal said "The Bad News Bears" and her 1980 summer camp film "Little Darlings" delved into areas that are sometimes glossed over today.
"There was a sense that the artistic won over the parental, kind of ... sanitation and I think it was important. .... 'Little Darlings' and 'Bad News Bears' got to do things that they probably wouldn't do today. The smoking and the topic of sex in 'Little Darlings.' Yeah, I like that they did that."
O'Neal played phenom pitcher Amanda Whurlitizer in "The Bad News Bears," which starred Walter Matthau as Morris Buttermaker, an alcoholic pool-cleaner who reluctantly agrees to coach a little league team.
The 1976 film is far from politically correct: the hapless Bears swear and hurl racial slurs while an exasperated Buttermaker downs beer after beer.

IN A PAPER LIFE, i told my story, and it was mine alone—the truth-is-stranger-than-fiction saga of being a child star in a dys¬functional show-biz family. but the story of my recent years is much more universal. This is the story of how i got sober, conquered my addictions once and for all, and am working to preserve that victory one day at a time. it is about the challenges and joys of being a mother; an ex-wife; and a single, middle-age actress. (yes, i said it.) it's about a woman who was once scared to get close to people but has learned how to be a friend and to trust in intimacy with others.

rebuilding a life means taking stock of what you have and what you've lost. As hope grew and i reemerged, i saw that there was an important person missing from my life: my father. Daddy. ours was the most important relationship of my life, and it was nonexistent for nearly twenty years.

more than anything, this is the story of a father and a daughter. when i wrote A Paper Life, i realized that there was no fairy-tale ending, that no life, particularly one in which a child is trauma¬tized, is ever perfectly resolved. in the ongoing process of rebuild¬ing my life, it was time to deal with my biggest unresolved issue. my dad. ryan o'Neal.

That strong, compelling movie star who was, at one time, my hero and my savior. yet we had barely spoken in eight years. even at my mother's funeral in 1997, we acknowledged each other but did not speak. Now i felt confident, strong, and certain of what i wanted. i was ready to try again, to rebuild my relationship with my father after so much private and public estrangement. And so i began a slow, careful attempt to reconcile with him. That reconciliation ran an uneven path, growing, faltering, and, ultimately, persevering.

when ryan and i first had the idea to share our efforts to mend our fragmented relationship with a television audience, we both thought long and hard about whether to do it. The risks and pitfalls were obvious—we might reinjure our new, delicate rela¬tionship and/or expose our private lives. but the honesty that the camera brings appealed to me. i wanted us to face each other in a harsh spotlight, where we couldn't hide anything, where each of us would have to take responsibility for how we had behaved in the past and who we were in the present.

Tatum O'Neal

Tatum Beatrice O'Neal (born November 5, 1963) is an American actress best known for her film work as a child actress in the 1970s. She is the youngest to win a competitive Academy Award, at the age of 10.

Personal life
Family and relationships
One of O'Neal's first public boyfriends was pop star Michael Jackson, whom she dated in the late 1970s to early '80s. In 1986, O'Neal married tennis player John McEnroe. No one from her family attended the ceremony. The couple have three children: Kevin (born 1986), Sean (born 1987) and Emily (born 1991). They separated in December 1992 and were divorced in 1994. Following the divorce, O'Neal's drug problems reemerged and she developed an addiction to heroin. As a result of her drug problems, McEnroe obtained custody of the children in 1998.
O'Neal was estranged from her father for 20 years.

Family background
O'Neal was born in Los Angeles, California, the daughter of actors Ryan O'Neal and Joanna Cook Moore, who had appeared in various motion pictures and television shows. Her brother, Griffin, was born in 1964. In 1967, her parents divorced and her father quickly remarried. Her father's marriage to actress Leigh Taylor-Young produced Tatum's half-brother, Patrick, but the union ended in divorce in 1973. Tatum has another half-brother, Redmond, from Ryan O'Neal's relationship with actress Farrah Fawcett. O'Neal's mother died in 1997 of lung cancer at age 63, after a career in which she had appeared in such movies as Walk on the Wild Side and Follow That Dream.

Child actress
In 1974, Tatum O'Neal became the youngest person ever to win a competitive Academy Award. She won the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress and the Golden Globe Award for New Star Of The Year - Actress for her performance in Paper Moon. O'Neal played the role of Addie Loggins, a child con artist being tutored by a Depression-era grifter played by her father, Ryan. She was 10 years old at the time she won the award.
During her childhood and teenage years, O'Neal starred in notable films such as The Bad News Bears (1976) with Walter Matthau, International Velvet (1978) with Christopher Plummer and Anthony Hopkins, and Little Darlings (1980) with Kristy McNichol. She also appeared in the less-successful film Nickelodeon (1976) with her father Ryan, and in Circle of Two (1980) with Richard Burton. She appeared as the title character in the Faerie Tale Theatre episode Goldilocks and the Three Bears (1984).

Adult career
O'Neal's acting career took a backseat to her 1986 marriage to John McEnroe, a professional tennis player, for many years. Their relationship began in 1984 during which time she moved into his Central Park West condo in New York City. She would appear in only five films during the next 15 years. One notable role of hers was in Basquiat (1996).
In the early 2000s, O'Neal began acting more frequently and made guest appearances on Sex and the City, 8 Simple Rules for Dating My Teenage Daughter, and Law and Order: Criminal Intent. In 2005, O'Neal began a recurring role as Maggie Gavin on the firehouse drama series Rescue Me, portraying the unbalanced and lively sister of Tommy Gavin, played by Denis Leary.
In January 2006, she participated in the second season of ABC's reality series Dancing with the Stars but was eliminated in the second round. She went on to do commentary for the series on Entertainment Tonight.
From 2006 to 2007, she starred as the vindictive and psychotic Blythe Hunter in the My Network TV prime-time drama Wicked Wicked Games. She appears opposite Nashawn Kearse and Vanessa L. Williams in the Liberty Artists feature film My Brother (2007).

On June 1, 2008, she was arrested for allegedly buying crack cocaine near her Manhattan apartment building. When police searched her, they allegedly found two bags of drugs — one of crack cocaine, one of regular cocaine — and an unused crack pipe. She was charged with a misdemeanor, criminal possession of a controlled substance. Authorities released her without bail. On July 2, 2008, O'Neal pleaded guilty to disorderly conduct in connection with the arrest and agreed to spend two half-day sessions in a drug treatment program.

Autobiography claims
In her autobiography, A Paper Life, O'Neal alleged that she had been molested by a male friend of her father. She also alleges physical and emotional abuse from her father, much of which she attributed to drug use. She also detailed her own heroin addiction and its effects on her relationship with her children. Her father, Ryan, denied these allegations. In a prepared statement, Ryan O'Neal said: "It is a sad day when malicious lies are told in order to become a 'best-seller'.
O'Neal writes in her autobiography that when she was 13, her father took her and her friend Melanie Griffith (18 at the time) on a trip to Europe, where she caught him having sex with Griffith in their hotel room.