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Monday, July 4, 2011

Breastfeeding Rates in the USA

ANGELES CITY -- In line with the celebration of the Nutrition Month this July, the City Nutrition Office (CNO) here has launched a breastfeeding program and other advocacy activities.

The event started with a float parade participated in by daycare students in different barangays of the city.

Each participating daycare school presented nutrition themes, as students waved from floats decorated with vegetables and fruits.

This year's theme is "Isulong ang Breastfeeding: Tama, Sapat at EKsklusibo" (TSEK), which aims to arm parents, especially mothers, on the importance and the benefits of breastfeeding.

The theme supports the Department of Health's campaign on communication for behavioral impact on breastfeeding, which is "Breastfeeding TSEK (Tama, Sapat at EKsklusibo)".

This year's objective of the Nutrition Month celebration is to encourage all sectors of society to help promote, protect and support correct breastfeeding practices.

Mayor Edgardo Pamintuan urged every individual to be an advocate of breastfeeding, especially in the homes to ensure good health and nutrition of children.

Other activities such as food fairs featuring local and nutritious products; seminars for patients with diabetes and glucose monitoring; fun walk; contests on the most healthy child and cooking; feeding programs; poster making contests; seeds distribution; skills trainings and a nutri-jingle contest are all lined-up for the month-long celebration.

Part of the ongoing nutrition program of the City Government, "Pahalo-halo ni EdPam," a feeding and training program conducted recently, aims to educate parents on the proper handling and preparation of the meals of the family.

Calaguas said the pilot project of Pahalo-halo ni EdPam in Northville 15 in Barangay Cutud was very successful because 70 percent of the children who were listed as underweight due to malnutrition have been reported to be of normal weight now.

The launching of the second feeding program will be at Epza on July 11.

City Councilor Maricel Morales said nutrition in the family doesn't need to be expensive. "We only need to know the proper handling and the preparation of meals, and that already makes a difference."

In cooperation with the City Government departments, like the Gender and Development (GAD) Office, City Social Welfare and Development Office (CSWDO), City Health Office (CHO), City Agriculture Office (CAO) and the City Public Employment Services Office (Peso), barangay nutrition scholars (BNS) are trained on how to properly handle and prepare nutritious food for the family.


Breastfeeding is the feeding of an infant or young child with breast milk directly from female human breasts (i.e., via lactation) rather than from a baby bottle or other container. Babies have a sucking reflex that enables them to suck and swallow milk. It is recommended that mothers breastfeed for six months or more, without the addition of infant formula or solid food. After the addition of solid food, mothers are advised to continue breast-feeding up to a year, and can continue for two years or more.
Human breast milk is the healthiest form of milk for babies. There are few exceptions, such as when the mother is taking certain drugs or is infected with human T-lymphotropic virus, HIV, or has active untreated tuberculosis. Breastfeeding promotes health and helps to prevent disease. Artificial feeding is associated with more deaths from diarrhea in infants in both developing and developed countries. Experts agree that breastfeeding is beneficial, and have concerns about artificial formulas but there are conflicting views about how long exclusive breastfeeding remains beneficial.
The World Health Organization (WHO) and the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) emphasize the value of breastfeeding for mothers as well as children. Both recommend exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of life and then supplemented breastfeeding for at least one year and up to two years or more. While recognizing the superiority of breastfeeding, regulating authorities also work to minimize the risks of artificial feeding.

Breast milk
Not all the properties of breast milk are understood, but its nutrient content is relatively stable. Breast milk is made from nutrients in the mother's bloodstream and bodily stores. Breast milk has just the right amount of fat, sugar, water, and protein that is needed for a baby's growth and development. Because breastfeeding uses an average of 500 calories a day it helps the mother lose weight after giving birth.The composition of breast milk changes depending on how long the baby nurses at each session, as well as on the age of the child. The quality of a mother's breast milk may be compromised by smoking, alcoholic beverages, caffeinated drinks, marijuana, methamphetamine, heroin, and methadone.

Benefits for the infant
Scientific research, such as the studies summarized in a 2007 review for the U.S. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) and a 2007 review for the WHO, has found many benefits to breastfeeding for the infant. These include:

Greater immune health
During breastfeeding, antibodies pass to the baby. This is one of the most important features of colostrum, the breast milk created for newborns. Breast milk contains several anti-infective factors such as bile salt stimulated lipase (protecting against amoebic infections), lactoferrin (which binds to iron and inhibits the growth of intestinal bacteria) and immunoglobulin A protecting against microorganisms.

Fewer infections
Among the studies showing that breastfed infants have a lower risk of infection than non-breastfed infants are:
In a 1993 University of Texas Medical Branch study, a longer period of breastfeeding was associated with a shorter duration of some middle ear infections (otitis media with effusion) in the first two years of life.
A 1995 study of 87 infants found that breastfed babies had half the incidence of diarrheal illness, 19% fewer cases of any otitis media infection, and 80% fewer prolonged cases of otitis media than formula fed babies in the first twelve months of life.
Breastfeeding appeared to reduce symptoms of upper respiratory tract infections in premature infants up to seven months after release from hospital in a 2002 study of 39 infants.
A 2004 case-control study found that breastfeeding reduced the risk of acquiring urinary tract infections in infants up to seven months of age, with the protection strongest immediately after birth.
The 2007 review for AHRQ found that breastfeeding reduced the risk of acute otitis media, non-specific gastroenteritis, and severe lower respiratory tract infections.

Benefits for mothers
Breastfeeding is a cost effective way of feeding an infant, providing nourishment for a child at a small cost to the mother. Frequent and exclusive breastfeeding can delay the return of fertility through lactational amenorrhea, though breastfeeding is an imperfect means of birth control. During breastfeeding beneficial hormones are released into the mother's body and the maternal bond can be strengthened.Breastfeeding is possible throughout pregnancy, but generally milk production will be reduced at some point.

Hormones released during breastfeeding help to strengthen the maternal bond. Teaching partners how to manage common difficulties is associated with higher breastfeeding rates. Support for a mother while breastfeeding can assist in familial bonds and help build a paternal bond between father and child.
If the mother is away, an alternative caregiver may be able to feed the baby with expressed breast milk. The various breast pumps available for sale and rent help working mothers to feed their babies breast milk for as long as they want. To be successful, the mother must produce and store enough milk to feed the child for the time she is away, and the feeding caregiver must be comfortable in handling breast milk.

Hormone release
Breastfeeding releases oxytocin and prolactin, hormones that relax the mother and make her feel more nurturing toward her baby. Breastfeeding soon after giving birth increases the mother's oxytocin levels, making her uterus contract more quickly and reducing bleeding. Pitocin, a synthetic hormone used to make the uterus contract during and after labour, is structurally modelled on oxytocin. Syntocinon, another synthetic oxytocic, is commonly used in Australia and the UK rather than Pitocin.

Weight loss
As the fat accumulated during pregnancy is used to produce milk, extended breastfeeding—at least 6 months—can help mothers lose weight. However, weight loss is highly variable among lactating women; monitoring the diet and increasing the amount/intensity of exercise are more reliable ways of losing weight. The 2007 review for the AHRQ found "The effect of breastfeeding in mothers on return-to-pre-pregnancy weight was negligible, and the effect of breastfeeding on postpartum weight loss was unclear."

Natural postpartum infertility
Breastfeeding may delay the return to fertility for some women by suppressing ovulation. A breastfeeding woman may not ovulate, or have regular periods, during the entire lactation period. The period in which ovulation is absent differs for each woman. This lactational amenorrhea has been used as an imperfect form of natural contraception, with greater than 98% effectiveness during the first six months after birth if specific nursing behaviors are followed. It is possible for women to ovulate within two months after birth while fully breastfeeding and get pregnant again.

Long-term health effects
For breastfeeding women, long-term health benefits include:
Less risk of breast cancer, ovarian cancer, and endometrial cancer.
A 2009 study indicated that lactation for at least 24 months is associated with a 23% lower risk of coronary heart disease.
Although the 2007 review for the AHRQ found "no relationship between a history of lactation and the risk of osteoporosis", mothers who breastfeed longer than eight months benefit from bone re-mineralisation.
Breastfeeding diabetic mothers require less insulin.
Reduced risk of metabolic syndrome
Reduced risk of post-partum bleeding.
According to a Malmö University study published in 2009, women who breast fed for a longer duration have a lower risk for contracting rheumatoid arthritis than women who breast fed for a shorter duration or who had never breast fed.

Charice Pempengco

Charmaine Clarice Relucio Pempengco, born May 10, 1992, popularly known by the mononym Charice, is a Filipino recording artist and actress who rose to popularity through YouTube. Dubbed by Oprah Winfrey as the Most Talented Girl in the World, she released her first international studio album, Charice in 2010. The album entered the Billboard 200 at number-eight making Charice the first Asian and Filipino singer in history to land in the Top 10 of the Billboard 200 album chart.
She released the single, "Pyramid", which featured rapper, Iyaz. It became her most successful single to-date, charting within the top-40 in a number of countries, and debuting on The Oprah Winfrey Show where she sang live vocals. Crossing over to acting on television, she joined the cast of TV series Glee as Sunshine Corazon. She has released a new lead single, "Before It Explodes", written by Bruno Mars, from her upcoming international sophomore studio album.

Early life
Pempengco was born in Laguna, Philippines. Raised by a single mother, she helped support the family by entering singing contests at age seven, from town fiestas in various provinces to singing competitions on TV. She is said to have competed in almost a hundred such contests.
In 2005, Charice joined Little Big Star, a talent show in the Philippines loosely patterned after American Idol. Eliminated after her first performance, she was called back as a wildcard contender and eventually became one of the finalists. Although she was a consistent top scorer in the final rounds, she did not win the title in the finale and only placed third.
Charice made minor appearances on local television shows and commercials, but essentially fell off the radar after her stint at Little Big Star. It was not until 2007 that she gained worldwide recognition after an avid supporter under the username FalseVoice, started posting a series of her performance videos on YouTube. These videos received over 15 million hits.

Charice (2010-present)
On January 23, 2010, she appeared on Io Canto, a renowned singing competition in Italy. She performed her standards plus an Italian favorite called "Adagio" (made popular by Lara Fabian), in Italian. On January 31, she was featured as one of the musical acts on the NBC Sports program Silk Soy Milk Skate for the Heart, a show designed to raise awareness of heart disease. She performed "Note to God" and debuted two new songs included in her debut album, "In This Song" and "Breathe Out" (later retitled as "Breathe You Out"). The album version and club remixes of her second single, "Pyramid" (featuring Iyaz), from her international debut album were released on February 23, 2010 and March 2, 2010. Her self-titled international debut album with Reprise Records was released on May 11, 2010. On its first week, the album reached #8 on the Billboard 200 Album Chart, making her the first Asian to enter the Top 10.disputed – discuss On the same day as part of her album launching, she again made a guest appearance on The Oprah Winfrey Show along with another YouTube-discovered singer Justin Bieber. Pempengco's world-wide promotion of her album was shown in a 12-part mini-documentary entitled 30 Days with Charice, which was filmed by Alloy TV and published at Teen.com. On June 22, Pempengco herself confirmed that she will join the cast of the hit US television series Glee on its second season. Later in the week, she released a promotional single entitled "Crescent Moon" in Japan. The single is an English rendition of the Japanese song "Mikazuki" by Ayaka.
During the inauguration of Philippine President Benigno Aquino III on June 30, 2010, she sang the Philippine national anthem in front of a crowd estimated at more than half a million. In July, she embarked on an album promotional tour of Asia covering Thailand, the Philippines, Japan and South Korea. While in South Korea, she appeared on the show Star King for the third time.On September 7, the premiere of Glee's second season was held in Hollywood with Pempengco in attendance. Cast in a recurring role, she plays an exchange student from the Philippines named Sunshine Corazon who presents serious competition against lead character Rachel Berry (played by Lea Michele). On November 30, she appeared on NBC's Christmas in Rockefeller Center and performed two songs from her Christmas EP, "Grown-Up Christmas List" and "Jingle Bell Rock", with producer and mentor David Foster. In December, she became Operation Smile's official Smile Ambassador. She joins other celebrity Smile Ambassadors such as Jessica Simpson, Billy Bush, and Zachary Levi in the organization's global efforts of providing free surgeries to children born with cleft lip, cleft palate and other facial deformities. On February 13, 2011, her very first television musical special entitled Charice: Home for Valentine's was broadcasted on Philippine television's GMA 7 network. According to AGB Nielsen TV Audience Measurement, the show earned the highest rating of the night in the Mega Manila area, beating its competition by a wide margin. From February 21 to February 25, she embarked on her very first solo tour performing in four shows held at three different Zepp music halls in Japan (Nagoya, two Tokyo dates, and Osaka).

Upcoming sophomore international album
It was announced that she began to record new material for her upcoming sophomore international album. "Before It Explodes" was released as her comeback single, which was written by Bruno Mars. The single was released on April 18, 2011. The following day after its release, another song, titled "One Day", was released on iTunes, which was co-written and co-produced by Nick Jonas. "Louder", the second single was released on May 20 which was bundled with another song, "Lost The Best Thing.

In an ABC News interview, David Foster mentioned that she has the ability to mimic other people's voices, which, according to him, is a characteristic of good singers. In a separate interview, Josh Groban stated that Charice's voice is one of the most beautiful voices he has heard in a long time. The New York Post once called her a vocal prodigy for being able to sing 'big songs' even at her tender age.Ryan Murphy, the executive music producer of the hit US television series Glee, said, "When that girl opens her mouth, angels fly out.

Awards and recognitions
3rd Place – Little Big Star Big Division, Season 1, Philippines
Most Requested Foreign Act of 2007 – StarKing, South Korea
Most Memorable Moment of 2007 – The Ellen DeGeneres Show, USA
Pinoy World Class Talent – 20th Year Anniversary of the Music Museum, 2008, Philippines
Key To The City of Rotterdam – Mayor Ivo Opstelten, 2008, The Netherlands
Best New Female Recording Artist – Aliw Awards, 2008, Philippines
Newsmaker of the Year 2008, 2009 and 2010 – Balitang America, USA
People of the Year 2008 – People Asia Magazine, 2009, Philippines
Plaque of Recognition – The Spirit of EDSA Foundation, 2009, Philippines
Special Citation Award – MYX Music Awards 2009, Philippines
National Newsmaker of the Year 2008 – Ateneo de Davao University TAO Awards, 2009, Philippines
Outstanding Global Achievement – 40th Box Office Entertainment Awards (Guillermo Awards), 2009, Philippines
Best Selling Album of the Year - 22nd Awit Awards, 2009, Philippines
Best Musical Performance of 2009 – The Oprah Winfrey Show, USA
Person of the Year for 2009 – Philnews.com, Philippines
MDWK Magazine's Top Newsmakers of 2009 – Asian Journal's MDWK Magazine, Philippines
Fun, Fearless Female Award – Cosmopolitan Magazine Philippines, 2010
21 Under 21: Music's Hottest Minors (Number 4) – Billboard, 2010 USA
Icon of Tomorrow – J-14 Magazine, 2010 USA
BPInoy Award: Outstanding Filipino – Bank of the Philippine Islands, 2010 Philippines
Best Inspirational or Religious Song (for "Always You") - 23nd Awit Awards, 2010, Philippines
Number 4 in Yahoo!'s 2010 Most Irresistible Lyrics for 'Pyramid' – Yahoo!, 2010
Number 7 in Reader's Choice Favorite Album of 2010: 'Charice' - Billboard
Number 17 in Best Dance Club Songs of 2010: 'Pyramid' – Billboard
Number 59 in Japan Hot 100 Songs of 2010: 'Pyramid' – Billboard
J-Wave Tokio Hot 100 Award: Best New Artist - J-Wave Radio, 2011, Japan
Female Concert Performer of the Year - 42nd Box-Office Entertainment Awards, 2011, Philippines

Charice Will Not Appear In Glee Season 3

This could upset Filipino Gleekers and Charice fans. According to reports, Sunshine Corazon portrayed by Charice herself will no longer be seen.

Sunshine Corazon the nerdy Filipino exchange student, will not be seen in the next season of “Glee.” Confirmed by “Glee” creator Ryan Murphy, as reported by “Balitang America” on July 1.

According to Glee creator Ryan Murphy, celebrity guests will no longer be featured on the hit American musical series and that the show’s characters will be doing less singing.

This may be true as “The Glee Project,” an American reality television series, premiered right after the end of “Glee Season 2.” The reality show serves as an audition for 12 contenders who will vie for a role in the “Glee’s” third season.

Speaking with Celebuzz Charice said of her time on the show:

“It was a great experience. Especially when we did the season finale, because it was my birthday when we shot the finale episode. It was a great experience working with them – all the cast, the crew, everybody. I just miss them because they’re like family now.”
At the end of season 2 Charice was still uncertain about her upcoming role on the show, noting:

“It all depends on them (the show’s creator and producer). Of course, I would love to come back. Of course – it’s ‘Glee!’ Not only because it’s a big TV show, it’s also because of the relationship I had with everyone. I got really close with them, so I would love to be a part of it again.”
It will be interesting to see what direction the show moves in, but hopefully more character development and the same quirky mixture of songs from just about every genre conceivable will still be included in the mix.

Victoria Beckham

Victoria Caroline Beckham, born 17 April 1974 is an English singer-songwriter, dancer, model, actress, fashion designer and businesswoman. During her rise to fame with the late 1990s girl pop group the Spice Girls, Beckham was dubbed Posh Spice, a nickname first coined by the British pop music magazine, Top of the Pops in the July 1996 issue. Since the Spice Girls pursued separate careers, she has had a solo pop music career, scoring four UK Top 10 singles. Her first single to be released, "Out of Your Mind", reached Number 2 in the UK Singles Chart and is her highest chart entry to date. During her solo career, she has been signed to Virgin Records and Telstar Records.
Beckham has found more success as an internationally recognised and photographed style icon. Her career in fashion includes designing a line of jeans for Rock & Republic and later designing her own denim brand, dVb Style. Beckham has brought out her own range of sunglasses and fragrance, entitled Intimately Beckham, which has been released in the UK and the US. In association with the Japanese store Samantha Thavasa and Shiatzy Chen, she has produced a range of handbags and jewellery. In addition, Beckham has released two best-selling books; one her autobiography, the other a fashion guide.
In her television ventures, Beckham has participated in five official documentaries and reality shows about her, including Being Victoria Beckham and The Real Beckhams. Her last documentary was Victoria Beckham: Coming to America, which documented her move to the US with her family in 2007. She has since made a cameo appearance in an episode of American TV series Ugly Betty, and been a guest judge on Project Runway, Germany's Next Topmodel, and American Idol. As of 2009, the couple's joint wealth is estimated at £125 million.

Personal life
In 1997, she started dating footballer David Beckham after they had met at a charity football match, prompting him to request a meeting with her. Of their initial meeting, she said, "I didn't really know who he was. I was never into football. The couple announced their engagement in 1998 and were dubbed "Posh and Becks" by the media. On 4 July 1999 they were married by the Bishop of Cork, Paul Colton, at Luttrellstown Castle, Ireland. The wedding attracted much media coverage.Beckham's team-mate, Gary Neville, was the best man, and the couple's four month old son Brooklyn was the ring bearer.Most of the media were kept away from the ceremony as an exclusive deal with OK! magazine had been arranged, but photographs were released showing the Beckhams sitting on golden thrones. Victoria wearing a diamond coronet created for her by jewellery designer Slim Barrett. A total of 437 staff were employed for the wedding reception, which was estimated to have cost £500,000 ($823,650). The couple bought what would become their most famous home for £2.5 million in 1999; the property, which is set in 24 acres (97,000 m2) of land, was duly given a £3 million renovation and was subsequently dubbed Beckingham Palace by the media.
Victoria and David Beckham have three sons: Brooklyn Joseph (born 4 March 1999, Westminster, London), Romeo James (born 1 September 2002, Westminster, London), and Cruz David (born 20 February 2005, Madrid, Spain). Elton John and David Furnish are reportedly the godparents of Brooklyn and Romeo, and the godmother is Elizabeth Hurley. The Beckhams have stated that they would like to have more children, especially a daughter. On 9 January 2011, it was announced that the Beckhams are expecting their fourth child.
In January 2000, a tip-off to Scotland Yard detectives exposed a plot to kidnap Victoria and Brooklyn Beckham and hold them at a house in Hampstead, London. The family was then moved to a secret location, but no arrests were made. Later in March 2000, she received a death threat prior to performing at the Brit Awards with the Spice Girls, and in the show's rehearsal, a red laser light appeared on her chest and she was rushed off stage. After a fire door was found to be lodged open, it was thought that there had been an assassin there, and Beckham later revealed that she was terrified by the experience. In November 2002, five people were arrested after another plot for her kidnap was infiltrated by a tabloid newspaper. All charges were dropped after a witness was deemed unreliable. In 2004, allegations surfaced that David Beckham had had a brief affair with a former personal assistant, Rebecca Loos. The affair had apparently taken place when David had moved to Madrid, although he denied all the allegations.
The family moved to Los Angeles, California on 12 July 2007 as a result of David being signed to play for the LA Galaxy. On their arrival in America on 12 July 2007, Victoria and David were met by hundreds of paparazzi and media representatives, causing a media frenzy. They currently reside in a $22 million Beverly Hills mansion with ten security guards. To create publicity for their move to America, the couple were photographed in their underwear for the fashion magazine, W, which also included an interview in which Victoria said that David's supposed affair with Loos had made their marriage stronger. On 29 May 2011, it was announced that the Beckhams would be settling back to England after the birth of their fourth child, which was also confirmed as due in early July.
It was reported in October 2007 that Beckham had turned down the opportunity to appear in Sex and the City: The Movie. She stated in an interview: "...asked to be in the Sex and the City film, which I would have loved to have done, but because I am in full-on Spice Girls rehearsal mode, unfortunately, I can't do it. Beckham's marriage and career as a singer have made her the 52nd richest woman in Britain. and the 19th richest person in Britain with husband David, with an estimated joint wealth of £112 million ($225 million USD). In 2010, Beckhams's charity work with Save the Children earned her a nomination for the Do Something With Style Award from the VH1 Do Something Awards. The awards show, produced by Vh1, is dedicated to honoring people who do good and is powered by Do Something, an organization that aims to empower, celebrate, and inspire young people.

Victoria Beckham's feminine inspired dolly dresses

Former Spice Girl Victoria Beckham is reportedly scheduled to have her fourth baby with husband David Beckham today via Cesarean section.

The baby, a girl, will be born at a Los Angeles hospital, MTV UK reports. The child will be the Beckhams’ first daughter. David Beckham commented on the differences in preparing for their daughter:

“We’re really excited. You know, it’s a whole new different thing for us. To have so much pink in the house, lilac in the house, and dresses… All the clothes [are] ready, the room’s ready, so we’re all ready for it and all excited.”
Sources also say that Victoria Beckham plans to breastfeed her daughter, her first foray into the practice. Although she formula fed her boys, Beckham says having a girl has caused her to rethink the decision.

Typically sharp, powerful and straight lined, her previous collections are most definitely considered to be size 6, power dressing perfection. But it would seem a wave of different inspiration has come over the heavily pregnant Mrs Beckham.

Inspired by cartoon character Emily The Strange, VB told WWD that this is the girliest collection that she has ever designed, putting aside the tight, structured, glamorous court dress style in favour of a looser, baby-doll silhouette numbers. The dresses are feminine, pretty and rumoured to be inspired by the baby girl she is to give birth to any day now.

"These are the kind of dresses I've been searching for," Beckham told WWD, "The perfect little summer dress, something that was fun, something that was girly, something that was easy to wear, something that would take you from day through the night."

With bright colours, pretty trims and suitable to be worn with flats or heels, these dresses are the complete antitheist of what we have come to expect from the Victoria Beckham; designs that, in the past, have required a serious power pout, six-inch stils and an attitude fiercer than a grizzly bear to pull them off.

The line is simply called 'Victoria by Victoria Beckham' and will retail at lower prices than her main line for around £350 - £560 in sizes above a 6, making these dresses her most accessible to date.

Ronald Reagan

Ronald Wilson Reagan, February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004 was the 40th President of the United States (1981–1989), the 33rd Governor of California (1967–1975) and prior to that, a radio, film and television actor.
Reagan was born in Tampico in Whiteside County, Illinois, reared in Dixon in Lee County, Illinois, and educated at Eureka College in Eureka, Illinois, with a Bachelor of Arts degree in economics and sociology. Upon his graduation, Reagan first moved to Iowa to work as a radio broadcaster and then in 1937 to Los Angeles, California. He began a career as an actor, first in films and later television, appearing in over 50 movie productions and earning enough success to become a famous, publicly recognized figure. Some of his most notable roles are in Knute Rockne, All American and Kings Row. Reagan served as president of the Screen Actors Guild, and later spokesman for General Electric (GE); his start in politics occurred during his work for GE. Originally a member of the Democratic Party, he switched to the Republican Party in 1962. After delivering a rousing speech in support of Barry Goldwater's presidential candidacy in 1964, he was persuaded to seek the California governorship, winning two years later and again in 1970. He was defeated in his run for the Republican presidential nomination in 1968 as well as 1976, but won both the nomination and election, defeating incumbent Jimmy Carter in 1980.
As president, Reagan implemented sweeping new political and economic initiatives. His supply-side economic policies, dubbed "Reaganomics," advocated reducing tax rates to spur economic growth, controlling the money supply to reduce inflation, deregulation of the economy, and reducing government spending. In his first term he survived an assassination attempt, took a hard line against labor unions, and ordered military actions in Grenada. He was reelected in a landslide in 1984, proclaiming it was "Morning in America." His second term was primarily marked by foreign matters, such as the ending of the Cold War, the 1986 bombing of Libya, and the revelation of the Iran-Contra affair. Publicly describing the Soviet Union as an "evil empire, he supported anti-Communist movements worldwide and spent his first term forgoing the strategy of détente by ordering a massive military buildup in an arms race with the USSR. Reagan negotiated with Soviet General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev, culminating in the INF Treaty and the decrease of both countries' nuclear arsenals.
Reagan left office in 1989. In 1994, the former president disclosed that he had been diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease earlier in the year; he died ten years later at the age of 93. He ranks highly in public opinion polls of U.S. Presidents, and is a conservative icon.

Early life
Ronald Wilson Reagan was born in an apartment on the second floor of a commercial building in Tampico, Illinois on February 6, 1911, to John Edward "Jack" Reagan and Nelle Wilson Reagan. Reagan's father was a salesman and a storyteller, the descendant of Irish Catholic immigrants from County Tipperary. while his mother had Scots-English ancestors. Reagan had one older brother, Neil "Moon" Reagan (1908–1996), who became an advertising executive. As a boy, Reagan's father nicknamed his son "Dutch," due to his "fat little Dutchman"-like appearance, and his "Dutchboy" haircut; the nickname stuck with him throughout his youth.Reagan's family briefly lived in several towns and cities in Illinois, including Monmouth, Galesburg and Chicago, until 1919, when they returned to Tampico and lived above the H.C. Pitney Variety Store. After his election as president, residing in the upstairs White House private quarters, Reagan would quip that he was "living above the store again".
According to Paul Kengor, author of God and Ronald Reagan, Reagan had a particularly strong faith in the goodness of people, which stemmed from the optimistic faith of his mother, Nelle, and the Disciples of Christ faith, which he was baptized into in 1922. For the time, Reagan was unusual in his opposition to racial discrimination, and recalled a time in Dixon when the local inn would not allow black people to stay there. Reagan brought them back to his house, where his mother invited them to stay the night and have breakfast the next morning.
Following the closure of the Pitney Store in late 1920, the Reagans moved to Dixon; the midwestern "small universe" had a lasting impression on Reagan. He attended Dixon High School, where he developed interests in acting, sports, and storytelling. His first job was as a lifeguard at the Rock River in Lowell Park, near Dixon, in 1926. Reagan performed 77 rescues as a lifeguard, noting that he notched a mark on a wooden log for every life he saved. Reagan attended Eureka College, where he became a member of the Tau Kappa Epsilon fraternity, and majored in economics and sociology. He developed a reputation as a jack of all trades, excelling in campus politics, sports and theater. He was a member of the football team, captain of the swim team and was elected student body president. As student president, Reagan notably led a student revolt against the college president after he tried to cut back the faculty.

Military service
After completing fourteen home-study Army Extension Courses, Reagan enlisted in the Army Enlisted Reserve on April 29, 1937, as a private assigned to Troop B, 322nd Cavalry at Des Moines, Iowa. He was commissioned a Second Lieutenant in the Officers Reserve Corps of the Cavalry on May 25, 1937.
Reagan was ordered to active duty for the first time on April 18, 1942. Due to his nearsightedness, he was classified for limited service only, which excluded him from serving overseas. His first assignment was at the San Francisco Port of Embarkation at Fort Mason, California, as a liaison officer of the Port and Transportation Office. Upon the approval of the Army Air Force (AAF), he applied for a transfer from the Cavalry to the AAF on May 15, 1942, and was assigned to AAF Public Relations and subsequently to the First Motion Picture Unit (officially, the "18th AAF Base Unit") in Culver City, California. On January 14, 1943 he was promoted to First Lieutenant and was sent to the Provisional Task Force Show Unit of This Is The Army at Burbank, California. He returned to the First Motion Picture Unit after completing this duty and was promoted to Captain on July 22, 1943.
In January 1944, Captain Reagan was ordered to temporary duty in New York City to participate in the opening of the sixth War Loan Drive. He was re-assigned to the First Motion Picture Unit on November 14, 1944, where he remained until the end of World War II. He was recommended for promotion to Major on February 2, 1945, but this recommendation was disapproved on July 17 of that year. He returned to Fort MacArthur, California, where he was separated from active duty on December 9, 1945. By the end of the war, his units had produced some 400 training films for the AAF.

Entertainment career
After graduating from Eureka in 1932, Reagan drove himself to Iowa, where he auditioned for a job at many small-town radio stations.The University of Iowa hired him to broadcast home football games for the Hawkeyes. He was paid $10 per game. Soon after, a staff announcer's job opened at radio station WOC in Davenport, and Reagan was hired, now earning $100 per month. Aided by his persuasive voice, he moved to WHO radio in Des Moines as an announcer for Chicago Cubs baseball games. His specialty was creating play-by-play accounts of games that the station received by wire.
While traveling with the Cubs in California, Reagan took a screen test in 1937 that led to a seven-year contract with Warner Brothers studios. He spent the first few years of his Hollywood career in the "B film" unit, where, Reagan joked, the producers "didn't want them good, they wanted them Thursday".While sometimes overshadowed by other actors, Reagan's screen performances did receive many good reviews.
His first screen credit was the starring role in the 1937 movie Love Is on the Air, and by the end of 1939 he had already appeared in 19 films, including Dark Victory. Before the film Santa Fe Trail in 1940, he played the role of George "The Gipper" Gipp in the film Knute Rockne, All American; from it, he acquired the lifelong nickname "the Gipper". Reagan's favorite acting role was as a double amputee in 1942's Kings Row, in which he recites the line, "Where's the rest of me?", later used as the title of his 1965 autobiography. Many film critics considered Kings Row to be his best movie, though the film was condemned by New York Times critic Bosley Crowther.
Reagan called Kings Row the film that "made me a star". However, he was unable to capitalize on his success because he was ordered to active duty with the U.S. Army at San Francisco two months after its release, and never regained "star" status in motion pictures. In the post-war era, after being separated from almost four years of World War II stateside service with the 1st Motion Picture Unit in December 1945, Reagan co-starred in such films as, The Voice of the Turtle, John Loves Mary, The Hasty Heart, Bedtime for Bonzo, Cattle Queen of Montana, Tennessee's Partner, Hellcats of the Navy and The Killers (his final film) in a 1964 remake
Presidency, 1981–1989

Main articles: Electoral history of Ronald Reagan, Domestic policy of the Ronald Reagan administration, Foreign policy of the Ronald Reagan administration, Presidency of Ronald Reagan, and Reagan Doctrine

President Reagan delivers his first inaugural address, January 20, 1981.
During his Presidency, Reagan pursued policies that reflected his personal belief in individual freedom, brought changes domestically, both to the U.S. economy and expanded military, and contributed to the end of the Cold War.[91] Termed the Reagan Revolution, his presidency would reinvigorate American morale[92][93] and reduce the people's reliance upon government.[91] As president, Reagan kept a series of diaries in which he commented on daily occurrences of his presidency and his views on the issues of the day. The diaries were published in May 2007 in the bestselling book, The Reagan Diaries.[94]
First term, 1981–1985

The Reagans wave from the limousine taking them down Pennsylvania Avenue to the White House, right after the president's inauguration
To date, Reagan is the oldest man elected to the office of the presidency (at 69).[95] In his first inaugural address on January 20, 1981, which Reagan himself wrote,[96] he addressed the country's economic malaise arguing: "In this present crisis, government is not the solution to our problems; government is the problem."
The Reagan Presidency began in a dramatic manner; as Reagan was giving his inaugural address, 52 U.S. hostages, held by Iran for 444 days were set free.[97]
Assassination attempt
Main article: Reagan assassination attempt
On March 30, 1981, only 69 days into the new administration, Reagan, his press secretary James Brady, Washington police officer Thomas Delahanty, and Secret Service agent Timothy McCarthy were struck by gunfire from would-be assassin John Hinckley, Jr. outside the Washington Hilton Hotel. Although "close to death" during surgery,[98] Reagan recovered and was released from the hospital on April 11, becoming the first serving U.S. President to survive being shot in an assassination attempt.[99] The attempt had great influence on Reagan's popularity; polls indicated his approval rating to be around 73%.[100] Reagan believed that God had spared his life so that he might go on to fulfill a greater purpose.

Marriages and children
In 1938, Reagan co-starred in the film Brother Rat with actress Jane Wyman (1917–2007). They were engaged at the Chicago Theatre,and married on January 26, 1940, at the Wee Kirk o' the Heather church in Glendale, California. Together they had two children, Maureen (1941–2001) and Christine (June 26, 1947 – June 27, 1947), and adopted a third, Michael (born 1945). Following arguments about Reagan's political ambitions, Wyman filed for divorce in 1948, citing a distraction due to her husband's Screen Actors Guild union duties; the divorce was finalized in 1949. He is the only US president to have been divorced.
Reagan met actress Nancy Davis (born 1921) in 1949 after she contacted him in his capacity as president of the Screen Actors Guild to help her with issues regarding her name appearing on a communist blacklist in Hollywood (she had been mistaken for another Nancy Davis). She described their meeting by saying, "I don't know if it was exactly love at first sight, but it was pretty close. They were engaged at Chasen's restaurant in Los Angeles and were married on March 4, 1952, at the Little Brown Church in the San Fernando Valley. Actor William Holden served as best man at the ceremony. They had two children: Patti (born October 21, 1952) and Ron (born May 20, 1958).
Observers described the Reagans' relationship as close, real, and intimate. During his presidency they were reported as frequently displaying their affection for one another; one press secretary said, "They never took each other for granted. They never stopped courting. He often called her "Mommy;" she called him "Ronnie". He once wrote to her, "whatever I treasure and enjoy ... all would be without meaning if I didn’t have you. When he was in the hospital in 1981, she slept with one of his shirts to be comforted by his scent. In a letter to U.S. citizens written in 1994, Reagan wrote "I have recently been told that I am one of the millions of Americans who will be afflicted with Alzheimer's disease.... I only wish there was some way I could spare Nancy from this painful experience, and in 1998, while Reagan was stricken by Alzheimer's, Nancy told Vanity Fair, "Our relationship is very special. We were very much in love and still are. When I say my life began with Ronnie, well, it's true. It did. I can't imagine life without him.

Ten-foot Reagan statue unveiled in London

Ronald Reagan assumes his lapidary place in Grosvenor Square today, alongside Franklin D Roosevelt and Dwight D Eisenhower. All three presidents stood with Britain in war; yet Reagan – the man rather than the statue – towers over the other two.
We in this country have particular reason to be grateful to the Gipper. When General Galtieri attacked the Falkland Islands, he did everything he could to support us short of formally entering into hostilities with Argentina. The United States offered Britain immediate logistical and intelligence support. Caspar Weinberger recalled the president telling him to make available whatever military resources the United Kingdom requested without delay.
By contrast, FDR joined the Second World War only when Hitler – in possibly the most unhinged decision of his calamitous life – declared war on the United States. And while we owe a great debt to Ike as a soldier, his record as a president is more chequered. In later life, he identified his failure to support Britain over the Suez affair as the single greatest mistake of his career, and he was right: what misery the Middle East might have been spared had the Anglosphere stood united against Nasser.

Dignitaries attending included former U.S. Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice.

But, Palmer points out, one key figure was missing: Margaret Thatcher, Britain's prime minister during Reagan's term in office and his staunchest international ally.

Too frail to attend, Lady Thatcher asked Britain's foreign secretary, William Hague, to read a tribute on her behalf.

It said in part, "Ronald Reagan was a great president and a great man, a true leader for our times. He held clear principles, and acted upon them with purpose."

Ten feet tall and cast in bronze, the statue was commissioned by the Reagan Foundation and paid for by private donors.

Reagan's financial and social conservatism still make him a controversial figure in Britain, Palmer notes, but he is, she says, "widely admired for his diplomatic skills, and especially, his willingness to engage the Soviet Union and help end the Cold War.

"It is for his international statesmanship that Ronald Reagan will be remembered on this side of the Atlantic, and for a rare combination of skill, luck and courage that gave him a giant's role in modern history.

Coloring book

Coloring book, colouring book, is a type of book containing line art for a reader to add color using crayons, colored pencils, marker pens, paint or other artistic media. Coloring books are generally used by children, though coloring books for adults are also available.

Educational uses
As a predominately non-verbal medium, coloring books have seen wide application in education where the target groups do not speak and understand the primary language of instruction or communication. Examples of this include the use of coloring books in Guatemala to teach children about "hieroglyphs and Mayan artist patterns", and the production of coloring books to educate the children of farm workers about "the pathway by which agricultural pesticides are transferred from work to home. Coloring books are also said to help to motivate students' understanding of concepts that they would otherwise be uninterested in. Since the 1980s, several publishers have also produced educational coloring books intended for studying graduate-level topics such as anatomy and physiology, where color-coding of many detailed diagrams are used as a learning aid.
There is also a reputedly excellent textbook on the Fortran programming language, called A Fortran Coloring Book, that is presented as a tongue-in-cheek coloring book.

Health and therapeutic uses
Coloring books have seen wide application in the health professions as educational tools. One nurse, trying to limit the trauma of child surgery, described in an academic publication how the use of a coloring book "might help [the child] to understand what was going to happen to him. They are used in rehabilitation of accident victims to aid recovery of hand-eye coordination, and they are used with autistic children both for entertainment and for their soothing affect. It should be noted however that some autistic children will react strongly to bright colors, and that the use of paint and paint-brushes can lead to accidents that may greatly upset the child. For this reason a software based coloring book may be a better option.

Political uses
Coloring books have sometimes been used for political ends. In 1968 the Black Panther Coloring Book began circulating in the United States. The book, which featured black men and children killing pigs dressed as police officers, was not actually made by the Black Panther Party, instead being made by the Federal Bureau of Investigation's COINTELPRO program to discredit the organization.
The term and concept of the "coloring book" was adopted by the feminist artist Tee Corinne as a tool of female empowerment. Corinne made pencil sketches of female genitalia, which she then inked and printed on card stock. She published a collection of them in 1975 as The Cunt Coloring Book.
“ No other name seemed really to fit, although the word "cunt" was not one with which I was particularly comfortable. The alliteration, though, was nice. I also liked the idea of combining a street term for genitalia with a coloring book, because both are ways that, as children, we get to know the world.

Printed coloring books
Traditional Coloring Books and Coloring Pages are printed on paper or card. Some coloring books have perforated edges so their pages can be removed from the books and used as individual sheets. Others may include a story line and so are intended to be left intact. Today many children's coloring books feature popular cartoon characters. They are often used as promotional materials for animated motion pictures. Coloring books may also incorporate other activities such as Connect the dots, mazes and other puzzles. Some Coloring Books also incorporate the use of stickers.

Paint books and coloring books emerged in the United States as part of the "democratization of art" process, inspired by a series of lectures by British artist Joshua Reynolds, and the works of Swiss educator Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi and his student Friedrich Fröbel. Many educators concluded that all, regardless of background, students stood to benefit from art education as a means of enhancing their conceptual understanding of the tangible, developing their cognitive abilities, and improving skills that would be useful in finding a profession, as well as for the children's spiritual edification. The McLoughlin Brothers are credited as the inventors of the coloring book, when, in the 1880s, they produced The Little Folks' Painting Book, in collaboration with Kate Greenaway. They continued to publish coloring books until the 1920s, when the McLoughlin Brothers became part of the Milton Bradley Company.
Another pioneer in the genre was Richard F. Outcault. He authored Buster's Paint Book in 1907, featuring the character of Buster Brown, which he had invented in 1902. It was published by the Stokes Company. This launched a trend to use coloring books to advertise a wide variety of products, including coffee and pianos. Until the 1930s, books were designed with the intent for them to be painted instead of colored. Even when crayons came into wide use in the '30s, books were still designed so that they could be painted or colored.

Free coloring pages, kids activities printable flags

Tiffany Berg, author and motivational speaker, has released her first children's book, "If Cancer Was a Fish I'd Throw It Back."
The 18-page, fully illustrated children's book takes the emotions brought on by a cancer diagnosis and exhibits them in a way a child can relate to. Berg, who is from Lehi, compares feelings of fear about cancer to monsters in the closet or wishing you could ignore cancer like you can a phone call or stomping it out like a big hairy spider.
Children's emotional expressions are different than adult expressions, Berg said.
"They worry if cancer is contagious," she said. "Can they touch someone with cancer? Did they get cancer because they were bad? Is that why God hasn't taken it away?"
Berg's husband was diagnosed with cancer in 2004. As she and her five children struggled with a roller coaster of emotions, she said, she wished she had the means to help her children communicate their feelings, whether angry or sad.
"I really wanted our kids to have the vocabulary and permission to talk about how they felt," Berg said.
Her book, "If Cancer Was a Fish," came about after Berg's children lost their dad. Berg wanted other children struggling to understand cancer, whether it be their own diagnosis or that of a loved one, to have the right and the know-how to articulate the way they were feeling.

Educational Coloring Pages has about 10 Fourth of July coloring pages, but what they have looks easy. Free coloring pages include the Liberty Bell, picture of George Washington, and a unique coloring page with a catcher's mitt, baseball and apple pie, that just seems to quote, "As American as Baseball and Apple Pie!"

USA-Printables is an amazing site for high quality free coloring pages. The click and print pages are very detailed and sharp. They have loads of educational 4th of July pages. But the best thing about this free site is every page you open to print has a description and mini history lessons accompanying the coloring pages. The coloring pages ARE the history lessons. Your kids will learn about the Declaration of Independence while they're using the free Fourth of July coloring pages. They'll learn about the songs "The Star-Spangled Banner", and "God Bless America" as they're coloring a 4th of July fireworks worksheet. The Statue of Liberty, Liberty Bell, Betsy Ross sewing a flag, and the US Constitution are all here just waiting to be colored!

Crafters in the Providence, Rhode Island area planning to make use of printable 4th of July coloring pages and lesson plans, will love shopping at Joann Fabrics, Michaels Crafts, I-Party, and AC Moore. These craft and party stores are all located on Bald Hill Road in Warwick, RI, and have everything you're looking for to make your own printable Independence Day coloring pages. Staples, Walmart, and Target have reams of printer paper and card stock that are perfect for the crafts listed above.
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Princess Cruises

Princess Cruises is a British-American owned cruise line, based in Santa Clarita, California in the United States. Previously a subsidiary of P&O Princess Cruises PLC, the company is now one of eleven cruise ship brands operated by Carnival Corporation & PLC. Being based in America, executive control of Princess Cruises was transferred to Carnival Corporation's American division following the merger between Carnival and P&O Princess in 2002, however Carnival UK is responsible for sales and marketing of the company in the United Kingdom. The company was made famous by The Love Boat TV series, in which two of its ships, the Island Princess and Pacific Princess were featured. In May 2013, the brand new Royal Princess will become the flagship of Princess Cruises and Carnival Corporation.

Princess Cruises began in 1965, when founder Stanley McDonald chartered Canadian Pacific Limited's Alaska cruise ship Princess Patricia for Mexican Riviera cruises from Los Angeles during a time when she would have usually been laid up for the winter. However, Princess Pat, as she was fondly called, had never been designed for tropical cruising, lacking air-conditioning, and Princess ended her charter in favor of a more purpose-built cruise ship Italia.
The Italia had originally been ordered in 1963 and was one of the first to implement modern design elements, such as lifeboats mounted lower on the ship, allowing for uncluttered upperdecks, and engines placed far in the rear, allowing for spacious public rooms amidships. Gustavo Finali and Romano Boico had designed the ship's interiors, designers whose résumés included such ships as the Augustus and Raffaello (of Italian Line) and the Oceanic and Homeric (of Home Lines).
Construction proceeded slowly, and accordingly, the Italia was not launched until the spring of 1965, and during the fitting out, both the owners and the builder were declared bankrupt. The Italia was passed onto a bank who created a company to charter or sell the ship, and consequently, the company chartered the Italia to Princess.
Princess, who marketed the ship as Princess Italia but never officially renamed her, used the ship to inaugurate their Mexican Riviera cruises out of Los Angeles, and did not even receive the Princess logo on her funnel until 1967.
In 1969, the Princess Italia was used on Alaskan cruises from San Francisco, but by 1973, the charter was canceled, and the Italia returned to Europe on charter to Costa Cruise Line.
Princess's third charter ship was none other than Costa's Carla C. Originally, Compagnie Générale Transatlantique's Flandre, the ship had been purchased by Costa in the late sixties and given a major rebuilding. Almost immediately after completion, the ship was chartered to Princess, and it was on board the ship, which was marketed as, but again not officially renamed, Princess Carla, that Jeraldine Saunders wrote the first chapters of her nonfiction book The Love Boats.
Britain's Peninsular & Oriental Steam Navigation Company (P&O) which by 1960 was the world's largest shipping company with 320 ocean going vessels acquired Princess Cruise Lines in 1974 and their Spirit of London (originally to have been Norwegian Cruise Line's Seaward) was transferred to the Princess fleet, becoming the first Sun Princess.
The two ships that were to be featured heavily in the television series The Love Boat were built in 1971 at Nordseewerke for Flagship Cruises and originally named the Sea Venture (for the original Sea Venture, the 1609 wreck of which resulted in the settlement of Bermuda) and Island Venture. In 1974, P&O purchased them for their Princess division, and they served as the Island Princess and Pacific Princess respectively.
A part time addition to the Princess fleet was the former Swedish transatlantic liner Kungsholm, purchased by P&O from Flagship Cruises in 1978, and then restyled and rebuilt in Bremen as the Sea Princess. She was initially based in Australia as a P&O ship until 1981 when her role there was taken over by the Oriana. After that, she alternated between P&O and Princess colours as she moved between fleets. The Sea Princess returned to the P&O UK fleet permanently and in 1995 and was renamed Victoria to allow a then new Princess ship to be named Sea Princess.
The first P&O Princess Cruises purpose-built cruise ship was the Royal Princess in 1984, the largest new British passenger ship in a decade, and one of the first, if not the first, ships to completely dispense with interior cabins. The ship now serves in P&O Cruises fleet as the Artemis. The Swan Helenic Cruiseship Minerva II, originally built as the Renaissance Cruises R8 was renamed Royal Princess in 2007 after an extensive refit during a drydock in Gibraltar.
In 1986, P&O Princess Cruises acquired Tour Alaska, which operated on the Alaska Railroad. Based in Anchorage, Alaska, Princess Tours now operates ten luxury railcars with full-service scenic tours of Mount McKinley and can accommodate over 700 passengers per day.
P&O Princess Cruises acquired Sitmar Line in 1988 and transferred all of its major tonnage to Princess, including three cruise ships then under construction. The Dawn Princess and Fair Princess were both ex-Cunarders, and the former Sitmar Fairsky became Princess's Sky Princess. The first of the three new Sitmar ships came into the Princess brand in 1989 as the Star Princess, the largest British exclusively cruising ship. Two 70,000 grt cruise ships entered service in 1990 as the Crown Princess and Regal Princess, bringing Princess's fleet up to ten deluxe cruise ships.
Princess Cruises was involved in litigation with GE in 1998 over consequential damages and lost profits resulting from a contract the two parties entered into. GE was to provide inspection and repair services upon the SS Sky Princess. Upon noticing surface rust on the rotor, the vessel was brought ashore for cleaning and balancing, but good metal was unintentionally removed. This destabilized the rotor, forcing Princess Cruises to cancel two 10-day cruises while additional work was performed. Princess originally prevailed, being awarded nearly $4.6 million. On appeal, however, the judgment was reversed in favor of GE, and Princess Cruises only recovered the price of the contract, less than $232,000.
On October 23, 2000, the Peninsular & Oriental Steam Navigation Company (P&O) demerged its passenger division to form an independent company, P&O Princess Cruises PLC.

Future ships
In early 2010, Fincantieri and Carnival Corporation & plc reached an agreement to build two ships for Princess Cruises. The agreement is subject to the execution of a definitive contract, financing and other customary conditions.
The contract was then finalized on May 4th, 2010. While in the midst of Economic downturn, Princess managed to finalize the contract with the help of Italian Export Credit Companies, particularly SACE S.p.A.
The two ships are designed to have a tonnage of 141,000-GT, with a passenger capacity of 3,600. The new ships are predicted to enter service in Spring 2013 and 2014 and will be the largest newbuilds to date for Princess Cruises. The ship's design will be evolutionary, from the current Princess fleet and will offer new innovations in the fleet. 100% of its outside staterooms will have balconies, which will comprise the 80% of all staterooms. The signature Piazza atrium will have an expansion. Other innovations is yet to be unveiled in the upcoming months.
Royal Princess is scheduled to leave the Princess fleet in May 2011 when it joins P&O Cruises as MS Adonia.
Mid-March 2011 Princess released a video of their new 'Royal Princess' to debut in May 2013. New features include a cantilevered walkway and bar on the top deck; enlarged Sanctuary with adult-only pool and the largest Movies Under The Stars screen Princess has built so far.

Former fleet
Princess Italia (1967-1973) - Since 2002 sailing for Louis Cruise Lines as Sapphire.
Island Princess (1972—1999) - Since 2003 sailing for Discovery World Cruises as Discovery.
Sun Princess (1974—1989) - Since 2004 sailing for Cruise Elysia as New Flamenco. - Recently sold for scrap at Alang, India in 2010
Pacific Princess (1975—2002) - Since 2008 sailing for Quail Cruise as Pacific.
Sea Princess (1979—1995) - Since 2008 sailing for Lord Nelson Seereisen as Mona Lisa.
Royal Princess (1984—2005) - Since 2005 sailing for P&O Cruises as Artemis.
Fair Princess (1988—1997) - Scrapped in Alang, India 2005.
Dawn Princess (1988—1993) - Scrapped in Alang, India 2004.
Star Princess (1989—1997 ) - Since 2003 sailing for Ocean Village as Ocean Village. Recently in 2010, transferred to P&O Cruises Australia and sails as Pacific Pearl.
Golden Princess (1993–1996) - Since 2005 sailing for Fred. Olsen Cruise Lines as MV Boudicca.
Regal Princess (1992—2005) - Since 2007 sailing for P&O Cruises Australia as Pacific Dawn.
Crown Princess (1992—2002) - Since 2004-2009, sailed for Ocean Village as Ocean Village Two. Recently in 2009, transferred to P&O Cruises Australia and sails as Pacific Jewel.
Sky Princess (1983—2000) - Since 2006 sailing for Pullmantur Cruises as the Sky Wonder.
Ocean Princess (2000—2002) - Since 2002 sailing for P&O Cruises as Oceana.
Royal Princess (2007—2011) - Since 2011 sailing for P&O Cruises as Adonia.