German company Festo has a habit of creating fascinating robotic stuff, but none has impressed us as much as this SmartBird, A mechanical bird made with carbon fiber can take off without assistance, using only its wings, fly and land smartly. It is also very efficient in terms of energy consumption, just takes 23 watts with weight of approx half a kilo. Despite being independent, can be controlled remotely. Off course this weight is achieved with a light structure of carbon fiber and polyurethane foam coating.
Easy domain and Hosting
Sunday, April 3, 2011
iOS jailbreaking is a process that allows devices running Apple's iOS (also known as iPhone OS prior to iOS 4.0) operating system (such as the iPad, iPhone, iPod Touch, and recently Apple TV) to gain full access (root access) to unlock all features of the said operating system, thereby removing limitations imposed by Apple. Once jailbroken, iOS users are able to download additional applications, extensions and themes that are unavailable through the official Apple App Store, via installers such as Cydia, one of a number of current means for older iPhones. A jailbroken iPad, iPhone or iPod Touch running iOS can still use the App Store and iTunes and other normal functions, such as making telephone calls. Jailbreaking is similar to rooting an Android device.
At its core, Jailbreaking a device gives you access to its root filesystem, allowing you to modify and install Third-party software component and modifications to that device. This allows you to be in more control of that device and allows many features that were previously unavailable without Jailbreaking that device.
Under the DMCA of 2010, jailbreaking is legal in the United States, although it voids Apple's device warranty. It is also legal in many other countries including those of the EU. The jailbreaking process, however, can be quickly and easily reversed by restoring the operating system through iTunes. Cydia creator Jay Freeman estimates that more than 10% of all iPhones are jailbroken.
Jailbreaking is different than SIM unlocking, which, once completed, means that the mobile phone will accept any SIM card without restriction, thus allowing the user access to alternative phone companies. To software unlock an iPhone, one must jailbreak first, giving the user full access of the device to do such a thing. For newer devices, this process usually involves downloading ultrasn0w from Cydia. One alternative to software unlocking is to buy a factory unlocked iPhone. These iPhones come SIM unlocked straight from Apple and don't require to be jailbroken using third party software.
Reba Nell McEntire (born March 28, 1955) is an American country music artist and actress. She began her career in the music industry singing with her siblings on local radio shows and at rodeos. As a solo act, she was invited to perform at a rodeo in Oklahoma City, which caught the attention of country artist Red Steagall. He brought her to Nashville, Tennessee, where she eventually signed a contract with Mercury Records in 1975. She released her first solo album in 1977 and released five additional studio albums under the label until 1983.
Signing with MCA Nashville Records, McEntire took creative control over her second MCA album, My Kind of Country (1984), which had a more traditional country sound and produced two number one singles: "How Blue" and "Somebody Should Leave". The album brought her breakthrough success, bringing her a series of successful albums and number one singles in the 1980s and 1990s. McEntire has since released 26 studio albums, acquired 35 #1 singles, and 28 albums have been certified Gold, Platinum or Multi-Platinum in sales by the Recording Industry Association of America.
In the early 1990s, McEntire branched into film starting with 1990's Tremors. She has since starred in the Broadway revival of Annie Get Your Gun and starred in her television sitcom, Reba (2001–2007) for which she was nominated for the Golden Globe Award for Best Performance by an Actress in a Television Series–Musical or Comedy. She has sometimes been referred to as "The Queen of Country",having sold 41 million records in the United States and more than 56 million worldwide. In the United States, she ranks as both the seventh best-selling female artist in all genres and the seventh best-selling country artist, and the second best-selling female country artist of all time, behind Shania Twain.
McEntire's sound has been influenced by the country music of Bob Wills, Merle Haggard, Dolly Parton, Barbara Mandrell, and Patsy Cline. In college, McEntire would sneak into local dances at the Oklahoma-Texas border so she could dance to Wills's music, commenting that, "it didn't get any better than dancing to Bob Wills music". She also explained Merle Haggard's influence on her career, stating "I had every album he ever put out", and would sing "every song he did", along with her brother, Pake and sister, Susie. In addition, her first major hit, "Sweet Dreams" was a remake of Patsy Cline's version of the song, according to McEntire herself. McEntire's music has been described to not only be built upon traditional country music, but also expand into the genres of Country pop, Mainstream pop, Soul, Adult Contemporary, and R&B. At times, her music has often been criticized for moving away from traditional country music. Many music critics have often called her music to be "melodramatic", "formulaic", and "bombastic", particularly after her 1988 album, Reba. Studio releases such as Sweet Sixteen, Rumor Has It, It's Your Call, and Starting Over have often been described by these terms.
McEntire possesses a contralto vocal range and performs "vocal gymnastics" with her voice, a musical technique in which a singer twirls a note around, using their vibrato. McEntire has often credited Dolly Parton for influencing this trait, stating that she would always listen to Parton's records and find her style of vocal gymnastics, "so pretty".
McEntire has often been regarded as one of country music's most influential female vocalists and most beloved entertainers. She has also been highly-credited for remaining one of country's most popular female artists for over two decades, maintaining her success by continually incorporating contemporary musical sounds without changing her traditional vocal style. For many new artists, she has been credited as the inspiration to their careers in country music, including, Faith Hill, Martina McBride, Trisha Yearwood, and LeAnn Rimes. She has also been credited as an inspiration to other performers such as Taylor Swift, Carrie Underwood, Sara Evans, Terri Clark, Lee Ann Womack, Kelly Clarkson. The Net Music Countdown second handedly reported, "That influence has manifested itself in many ways. As a role model, she's shown others how to handle fame with grace and good humor while never backing down from her values or goals. Just as importantly, she's shown others to refuse to accept limitations on what she can do or how much she can achieve." McEntire also explained to the online website, "Whatever I'm doing, I feel like I'm representing country music". "It's always been my main career, and it's where my loyalties lie. I feel like I'm waving the flag of country music wherever I go, and I couldn't be prouder to do it.
McEntire's two siblings (both from the Singing McEntires) have also maintained careers in the music industry. Her brother, Pake McEntire was a successful country artist in the late 1980s and early 90s. Her sister, Susie Luchsinger, is a successful Christian music singer. She also has an older sister, Alice.
In 1976, McEntire married national steer wrestling champion and rancher, Charlie Battles. Together, the couple owned a ranch in Oklahoma and managed her career. In 1987, McEntire divorced Battles and moved to Nashville, Tennessee. She later commented to Bob Allen of Country Music about their separation, saying, "I had to pack everything in one day and leave. I was totally starting over." McEntire later claimed that she wanted to focus more on her music career, while Battles insisted that she remain at home, helping to take care of the ranch. McEntire stated, "I wasn't the little girl anymore, taking orders, and doing what he said."
In 1989, McEntire married her manager and former steel guitar player, Narvel Blackstock. The couple wed in a private ceremony on a boat in Lake Tahoe. Together, the pair took over all aspects of McEntire's career, forming Starstruck Entertainment, which was originally designed to help manage her career. From her second marriage, McEntire inherited three stepchildren and gave birth to a son, Shelby Steven McEntire Blackstock on February 23, 1990. The couple has since celebrated their twentieth wedding anniversary, and McEntire states that the secrets to her marriage are "Respect, faith, love, trust, and lots of patience"
Kumar Chokshanada Sangakkara (Sinhala: කුමාර් චෝක්ෂනාද සංගක්කාර) (born 27 October 1977, Matale, Sri Lanka) is a Sri Lankan cricketer and captain of the Sri Lanka national cricket team. He is a left-handed top-order batsman. He used to play as a wicket-keeper and top-order batsman in all forms of the game, but has stopped doing so in Tests as his batting average is significantly higher in Tests when he plays as a pure batsman. He was ranked as the number 1 Test batsman in the world several times during his career.
Sangakkara began his career as a batsman but subsequently became a wicket-keeper. His batting has developed to such an extent that he once topped the LG ICC Test batting rankings. However, in 2006 he gave the gloves to Prasanna Jayawardene in Tests and has since played as a specialist batsman. He remains Sri Lanka's wicket-keeper in One Day International and Twenty20 cricket. As of September 2009, he was ranked 1st on the Test batting rankings. Sangakkara peaked at 6th on the ICC all-time Test batting rankings.
Sangakkara likes to hit the ball square of the wicket on the off-side and upon making a century. consistently continues on past 150. On the 6 December 2007 he was named as the new Number 1 batsman in the LG ICC Test player rankings with a rating of 938, the highest rating ever achieved by a Sri Lankan player, and became the first batsman ever to score in excess of 150 in four consecutive tests. His skill was recognized worldwide when he earned selection for the ICC World XI One International Day team that competed against Australia in the Johnnie Walker Series in October 2005. He holds the record for fastest 8000 runs (152 innings) in Test cricket. He broke the previous record set by Sachin Tendulkar (154 innings) during the third test against India on 6 August 2010. Despite the World XI losing all of the one-day games by considerable margins, Sangakkara left the series with some credit, averaging 46.
Sangakkara was billed as a future captain of Sri Lanka. On Sri Lanka's tour to England in May 2006, he was named the vice-captain of the side. In March 2009 he was appointed to captain the Sri Lankan team for the 2009 ICC World Twenty20. Sangakkara has won a certain degree of admiration for his clever use of sledging and is one of few cricketers who are willing to talk about it openly.
In Sangakkara's first World Cup as captain, Sri Lanka reached the finals of the ICC Cricket World Cup 2011 tournament. Throughout the tournament Sangakkara was in prolific form with the bat and was the third highest run scorer behind Tillakaratne Dilshan and India's Sachin Tendulkar. In nine One Day international matches, he scored 465 with 44 boundaries and five Sixes. His top score in the tournament was 111 which he scored against New Zeland at the Wankhede Stadium in Mumbai.
WrestleMania is a professional wrestling pay-per-view event, produced annually in late March or early April by the World Wrestling Federation, later known as World Wrestling Entertainment (WWE). The company regards it as the flagship event of WWE, as it is the most successful and longest-running professional wrestling event in the world. WrestleMania is nicknamed "The Grandaddy of Them All," "The Grandest Stage of Them All" and "The Showcase of the Immortals." The event was first produced in 1985, and, as of 2010, 26 editions have been held consecutively since then, with XXVII and XXVIII to be held in 2011 and 2012 respectively.
Conceptualized by WWE owner Vince McMahon, WrestleMania's widespread success helped transform the professional-wrestling industry and make the WWE the most successful promotion in the world. WrestleMania has facilitated the rise to stardom of wrestlers such as The Undertaker, Hulk Hogan, Bret Hart, Shawn Michaels, Steve Austin, Triple H and The Rock, amongst others. Numerous celebrities such as Cyndi Lauper, Muhammad Ali, Mr. T, Alice Cooper, Lawrence Taylor, Pamela Anderson, Mike Tyson, Donald Trump, Floyd Mayweather, Snoop Dogg and others have participated or made special appearances in the events. The WWE's television shows are tailored to reach their climax at WrestleMania, which features matches for the company's championship titles, as well as specialty and gimmick matches. Participation in a WrestleMania match, and especially the main event, is considered by many wrestlers and fans alike as one of the greatest achievements and symbols of success in professional wrestling.
WrestleMania propels the worldwide commercial success of the WWE through media, merchandise and shows. All of the events produced have been sold out within a short period of time, with recent editions being sold out within minutes of tickets going on sale. The first WrestleMania was held in Madison Square Garden in New York City; the 10th and 20th editions were also held there. WrestleMania III in Detroit was the highest-attended indoor sports event in the world, with 93,173 fans in attendance. The record stood until February 14, 2010 when the 2010 NBA All-Star Game broke the indoor sporting event record with an attendance of 108,713 at Cowboys Stadium. All but two editions have been hosted in U.S. cities—two having been held in Toronto, Ontario—but the show is televised across the world via pay-per-view.
In 1999 the WWE held its first Saturday pre-WrestleMania event taking place on March 27, 1999. WrestleMania Rage Party as it was known was televised live on the USA Network from 10:00 p.m. to 11:00 p.m. (EST) the event was to be held at the Pennsylvania Convention Center, the idea of the event was "...to celebrate the final WrestleMania of the millennium..."
The following year the WWE held its first WrestleMania Axxess event at the Anaheim Convention Center expanding upon the party idea of WrestleMania Rage Party, the event included autograph signings and mementos to inductees into the WWE Hall of Fame. There were also activities where fans could enter a wrestling ring or pretend to commentate a wrestling match. In 2001, WrestleMania Axxess was held at the Reliant Hall which expanded upon the event by adding numerous activities, areas where attendees could buy special merchandise, see a production truck and check out special WWE vehicles. Beginning in 2002, WrestleMania Axxess would be extended to a three-day event March 14 through 16 and be held at Canadian National Exhibition. The three-day event would include such events as autograph sessions across the three-day period and interactive question and answers sessions with performers of WWE.
Pillow fight is a common game mostly played by young children (but can also occur with teens and adults) in which they engage in mock physical conflict, utilizing pillows as weapons.
Many times pillow fights occur during children's sleepovers. Since pillows are soft, injuries rarely occur. The heft of a pillow can still knock a young person off balance, especially on a soft surface such as a bed, which is a common venue. A useful technique in a pillow fight is to bundle the nibs. In earlier eras, pillows would often break, shedding feathers throughout a room. Modern pillows tend to be stronger and are often filled with a solid block of artificial filling, so breakage occurs far less frequently. An organized pillow fight will usually feature feathers due to its traditional value.
Pillow fighting became part of flash mob culture with pillow fight flash mobs popping up in cities around the world.
It is also one of the match types among women wrestlers called Divas in World Wrestling Entertainment (WWE). Most often, this type of match is booked as a Lingerie Pillow Fight, in which the women "compete" in lingerie and little or no actual wrestling takes place but feathers in the pillows were sometimes shedding from place to place.
In January 2007, Reuters reported that a Pillow Fight League was operating in bars in Toronto. Pre-selected female "fighters" with stage personalities are paid small amounts to stage regular, unscripted fights. The rules call for "no lewd behavior, and moves such as leg drops or submission holds are allowed as long as a pillow is used".
Students at Columbia University have incorporated a Spring Pillow Fight into the spring semester version of their bi-annual primal scream tradition. Students run into the center of campus screaming and pillow fighting on midnight of the Sunday of finals week as a way to relieve stress. Feathers in the pillows were sometimes shedding from place to place.
Edward Regan "Eddie" Murphy (born April 3, 1961) is an American stand-up comedian, actor, writer, singer, director, comedian, and musician.
The box office take from Murphy's films makes him the second highest grossing actor in the United States. He was a regular cast member on Saturday Night Live from 1980 to 1984, and has worked as a stand-up comedian. He was ranked #10 on Comedy Central's list of the 100 Greatest Stand-ups of All Time.
He has received Golden Globe Award nominations for his performances in 48 Hrs, Beverly Hills Cop series, Trading Places, and The Nutty Professor. In 2007, he won the Golden Globe for Best Supporting Actor for his portrayal of soul singer James "Thunder" Early in Dreamgirls, and received a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor for the same role.
Murphy's work as a voice actor includes Thurgood Stubbs in The PJs, Donkey in the Shrek series and the dragon Mushu in Disney's Mulan. In some of his films, he plays multiple roles in addition to his main character, intended as a tribute to one of his idols Peter Sellers, who played multiple roles in Dr. Strangelove and elsewhere. Murphy has played multiple roles in Coming to America, Wes Craven's Vampire In Brooklyn, the Nutty Professor films (where he played the title role in two incarnations, plus his father, brother, mother, and grandmother), Bowfinger, and 2007's Norbit.
Murphy was raised in the Bushwick neighborhood of Brooklyn, New York. His mother, Lillian, was a telephone operator, and his father, Charles Edward Murphy, was a transit police officer and an amateur actor and comedian. His father died when he was young. Murphy and his older brother Charlie were raised in Roosevelt, New York by his mother and stepfather Vernon Lynch, a foreman at an ice cream plant. Around the age of 15, Murphy was writing and performing his own routines, which were heavily influenced by Bill Cosby and Richard Pryor.
1982 48 Hrs. Reggie Hammond Nominated – Golden Globe Award for New Star of the Year – Actor
1983 Trading Places Billy Ray Valentine Nominated – Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Motion Picture Musical or Comedy
1983 Eddie Murphy Delirious Himself Also Producer
1984 Best Defense Lieutenant T.M. Landry
Beverly Hills Cop Det. Axel Foley Nominated – Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Motion Picture Musical or Comedy
1986 The Golden Child Chandler Jarrell
1987 Beverly Hills Cop II Det. Axel Foley
Eddie Murphy Raw Himself Also Producer
1988 Coming to America Prince Akeem/Clarence/Randy Watson/Saul
1989 Harlem Nights Quick (Real Name Vernest Brown) Also Director and Writer
1990 Another 48 Hrs. Reggie Hammond
1992 Boomerang Marcus Graham
The Distinguished Gentleman Thomas Jefferson Johnson
1994 Beverly Hills Cop III Det. Axel Foley
1995 Vampire in Brooklyn Maximillian/Preacher Pauly/Guido Also Producer
1996 The Nutty Professor Professor Sherman Klump/Buddy Love/
Lance Perkins/Cletus 'Papa' Klump/
Anna Pearl 'Mama' Jensen Klump/
Ida Mae 'Granny' Jensen/Ernie Klump, Sr. Also Producer
Saturn Award for Best Actor
National Society of Film Critics Award for Best Actor
Nominated – Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Motion Picture Musical or Comedy
Nominated – NAACP Image Award for Outstanding Actor in a Motion Picture
Nominated – Satellite Award for Best Actor – Motion Picture Musical or Comedy
1997 Metro Insp. Scott Roper
1998 Mulan Mushu (voice)
Doctor Dolittle Dr. John Dolittle
Holy Man G
1999 Life Rayford "Ray" Gibson Also Producer
Bowfinger Kit Ramsey/Jeffernson 'Jiff' Ramsey Black Reel Award: Best Actor
2000 Nutty Professor II: The Klumps Professor Sherman Klump/Buddy Love/
Lance Perkins/Cletus 'Papa' Klump/
Anna Pearl 'Mama' Jensen Klump/
Ida Mae 'Granny' Jensen/Ernie Klump Also Producer
Nominated – Satellite Award for Best Actor – Motion Picture Musical or Comedy
2001 Shrek Donkey (voice)
Annie Award for Outstanding Individual Achievement for Voice Acting by a Male Performer in an Animated Feature Production
Nominated – BAFTA Award for Best Actor in a Supporting Role
Nominated – Black Reel Award: Best Supporting Actor
Dr. Dolittle 2 Dr. John Dolittle
2002 Showtime Officer Trey Sellers
The Adventures of Pluto Nash Pluto Nash
I Spy Kelly Robinson
2003 Daddy Day Care Charles "Charlie" Hinton
The Haunted Mansion Jim Evers
2004 Shrek 2 Donkey (voice)
2006 Dreamgirls James 'Thunder' Early Broadcast Film Critics Association Award for Best Supporting Actor
Central Ohio Film Critics Association for Best Supporting Actor
Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actor – Motion Picture
Screen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance by a Male Actor in a Supporting Role
Nominated – Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor
Nominated – Black Reel Award: Best Supporting Actor
Nominated – Chicago Film Critics Association Award for Best Supporting Actor
Nominated – NAACP Image Award for Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Motion Picture
Nominated – Online Film Critics Society Award for Best Supporting Actor
Nominated – Saturn Award for Best Supporting Actor
Nominated – Screen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance by a Cast in a Motion Picture
2007 Norbit Norbit Rice/Rasputia Latimore-Rice/Mr. Wong Also Producer
Shrek the Third Donkey (voice)
2008 Meet Dave Starship Dave Ming-Chang (Spacecraft), Captain
2009 Imagine That Evan Danielson
2010 Shrek Forever After Donkey (voice)
Kids' Choice Award for Favorite Voice from an Animated Movie
2011 Tower Heist Leo "Slide" Dalphael
Jennifer Nettles (born September 12, 1974 in Douglas, Georgia) is an American country music artist. She is known primarily for her role as lead vocalist of the duo Sugarland alongside Kristian Bush. Before Sugarland's inception, she also fronted Atlanta, Georgia-based bands called Soul Miner's Daughter and Jennifer Nettles Band. She also charted as a duet partner on the country version of rock band Bon Jovi's 2006 single "Who Says You Can't Go Home", a Number One hit on the Billboard charts.
In 2003, Nettles teamed up with Kristen Hall and Kristian Bush to form Sugarland. Regarding the trio's collaboration, she said:
"We really wanted to get out of where we had all been as artists and move beyond that to something bigger. Consequently all the songs reflect that; 'Fly Away,' 'Baby Girl,' all of those songs - you speak to the human condition and write what you know in your life."
Sugarland was nominated for a Grammy award in the Best New Artist category in 2006. Although they did not win the award, Nettles and Bush performed for the awards show and Nettles presented both a Lifetime Achievement Award to Merle Haggard and the award for Best Country Group.
A duet performance with rock band Bon Jovi, "Who Says You Can't Go Home", reached No. 7 on the Bubbling Under Hot 100 chart and No. 1 on the Billboard Hot Country Singles chart. The video for the song won a CMT Music Award in 2006 for Collaborative Video Of The Year. In February 2007, Nettles and Bon Jovi won a Grammy for Best Country Vocal Collaboration. In 2006, Kristen Hall left the group and Nettles and Bush continued on as a duo releasing Enjoy the Ride in November 2006. Their third album, titled Love on the Inside, was released on July 22, 2008.
In an interview on Fox News with Martha MacCullum, Nettles expressed interest in appearing in a Broadway play, stating in particular that she would like to play the role of Elphaba in Wicked.
In early December 2008, Sugarland received three Grammy Award nominations and performed on the 51st Annual Grammy Awards show on February 8, 2009. They won awards for Best Country Song and Best Country Performance by a Duo or Group.
On Sunday, January 18, 2009, Nettles performed at the We Are One: The Obama Inaugural Celebration at the Lincoln Memorial, singing James Taylor's "Shower the People" with James Taylor and John Legend.
On February 11, 2009, Sugarland received two nominations from the Academy of Country Music for Top Vocal Duo and Vocal Event of the Year for "Life in a Northern Town". During the broadcast of the April 5, 2009 awards show, Sugarland was presented with the Vocal Duo of the Year award, ending Brooks & Dunn's nine-year run. Nettles also received a Milestone award, presented to her by Reba McEntire.
ABC-TV broadcast the first CMA Country Christmas, hosted by Nettles, on November 29, 2010. Nettles and Sugarland partner Kristian Bush kicked off the evening with their rendition of "Winter Wonderland," backed by the Southern harmonies of Little Big Town. The pair returned to the stage later in the program to perform the hymn "Come, O Come Emmanuel," just before the "Jingle Bell Rock" group grande finale of the 90-minute special.
Easter (Old English: Ēostre; Greek: Πάσχα, Paskha; Hebrew: פֶּסַח, Pesakh, "Passover") is the central feast in the Christian liturgical year.According to the Canonical gospels, Jesus rose from the dead on the third day after his crucifixion. Some Christians celebrate this resurrection on Easter Day or Easter Sunday(also Resurrection Day or Resurrection Sunday), two days after Good Friday and three days after Maundy Thursday. The chronology of his death and resurrection is variously interpreted to be between AD 26 and 36, traditionally 33.
Easter also refers to the season of the church year called Eastertide or the Easter Season. Traditionally the Easter Season lasted for the forty days from Easter Day until Ascension Day. The first week of the Easter Season is known as Easter Week or the Octave of Easter. The week from Palm Sunday to Easter is known as Holy Week. Easter also marks the end of Lent, a season of fasting, prayer, and penance.
Easter is a moveable feast, meaning it is not fixed in relation to the civil calendar. The First Council of Nicaea (325) established the date of Easter as the first Sunday after the full moon (the Paschal Full Moon) following the northern hemisphere's vernal equinox. Ecclesiastically, the equinox is reckoned to be on March 21 (even though the equinox occurs, astronomically speaking, on March 20 in most years), and the "Full Moon" is not necessarily the astronomically correct date. The date of Easter therefore varies between March 22 and April 25. Eastern Christianity bases its calculations on the Julian Calendar whose March 21 corresponds, during the 21st century, to the 3rd of April in the Gregorian Calendar, in which calendar their celebration of Easter therefore varies between April 4 and May 8.
Easter is linked to the Jewish Passover by much of its symbolism, as well as by its position in the calendar. In most European languages the feast called Easter in English is termed by the words for passover in those languages and in the older English versions of the Bible the term Easter was the term used to translate passover.
Secular customs, such as the Easter Bunny and Easter egg hunts, have become part of the holiday's modern celebrations and are often observed by Christians and non-Christians alike. There are also some Christian denominations who do not celebrate Easter.
Passover (Hebrew, Yiddish: פֶּסַח Pesach, Tiberian, Modern Hebrew: Pesah, Pesakh, Yiddish: Peysekh, Paysakh, Paysokh) is a Jewish holy day and festival. It commemorates the story of the Exodus, in which the ancient Israelites were freed from slavery in Egypt. Passover begins on the 15th day of the month of Nisan, which is spring in the Northern Hemisphere, and is celebrated for seven or eight days. It is one of the most widely observed Jewish holidays.
In the narrative of the Exodus, the Bible tells that God helped the Children of Israel escape slavery in Egypt by inflicting ten plagues upon the Egyptians before Pharaoh would release his Israelite slaves; the tenth and worst of the plagues was the slaughter of the first-born. The Israelites were instructed to mark the doorposts of their homes with the blood of a spring lamb and, upon seeing this, the spirit of the Lord passed over these homes, hence the term "passover".When Pharaoh freed the Israelites, it is said that they left in such a hurry that they could not wait for bread to rise. In commemoration, for the duration of Passover no leavened bread is eaten, for which reason it is called "The Festival of the Unleavened Bread". Matzo (flat unleavened bread) is the primary symbol of the holiday.
Together with Shavuot ("Pentecost") and Sukkot ("Tabernacles"), Passover is one of the three pilgrimage festivals (Shalosh Regalim) during which the entire Jewish populace historically made a pilgrimage to the Temple in Jerusalem. Samaritans still make this pilgrimage to Mount Gerizim, but only men participate in public worship.
The commandment to keep Passover is recorded in the Torah in the Book of Leviticus:
In the first month, on the fourteenth day of the month between the two evenings is the lord's Passover. And on the fifteenth day of the same month is the feast of unleavened bread unto the lord; seven days ye shall eat unleavened bread. In the first day ye shall have a holy convocation; ye shall do no manner of servile work. And ye shall bring an offering made by fire unto the lord seven days; in the seventh day is a holy convocation; ye shall do no manner of servile work. (Leviticus 23:5)
The biblical regulations for the observance of the festival require that all leavening be disposed of before the beginning of the 15th of Nisan. An unblemished lamb or goat is to be set apart on Nisan 10, and slaughtered on Nisan 14 "between the two evenings", a phrase which is, however, not defined. It is then to be eaten "that night", Nisan 15, roasted, without the removal of its internal organs with unleavened bread and bitter herbs.Nothing of the sacrifice on which the sun rises may be eaten, but must be burned. The sacrifices may only be performed in a specific place prescribed by God (for Judaism, Jerusalem and for Samaritans Mount Grezim).
The biblical regulations pertaining to the original Passover also include how the meal is to be eaten: "with your loins girded, your shoes on your feet, and your staff in your hand; and ye shall eat it in haste: it is the lord's passover" (Exodus 12:11).
Some of these details can be corroborated, and to some extent amplified, in extrabiblical sources. The removal (or "sealing up") of the leaven is referred to the Elephantine papyri, an Aramaic papyrus from 5th century BCE Elephantine in Egypt. The slaughter of the lambs on the 14th is mentioned in The Book of Jubilees, a Jewish work of the Ptolemaic period, and by the Herodian-era writers Josephus and Philo. These sources also indicate that "between the two evenings" was taken to mean the afternoon. Jubilees states the sacrifice was eaten that night, and together with Josephus states that nothing of the sacrifice was allowed to remain until morning. Philo states that the banquet included hymns and prayers.
The Biblical commandments concerning the Passover (and the Feast of Unleavened Bread) stress the importance of remembering:
And thou shalt remember that thou wast a bondman in Egypt; and thou shalt observe and do these statutes." (Deuteronomy 16:12)
Exodus 12:14 commands, in reference to God's sparing of the firstborn from the Tenth Plague:
And this day shall be unto you for a memorial, and ye shall keep it a feast to the lord; throughout your generations ye shall keep it a feast by an ordinance for ever.
Exodus 13:3 repeats the command to remember:
Remember this day, in which you came out of Egypt, out of the house of bondage, for by strength the hand of the LORD brought you out from this place.
Farley Earle Granger (July 1, 1925 – March 27, 2011) was an American actor. In a career spanning several decades, he was perhaps best known for his two collaborations with Alfred Hitchcock, Rope in 1948 and Strangers on a Train in 1951.
The studio publicity department was concerned audiences would confuse Farley with British actor Stewart Granger, so they suggested he change his name and offered him a list from which to choose. "The names were all interchangeable, like Gordon Gregory and Gregory Gordon. I didn't want to change my name. I liked Farley Granger. It was my father's name, and his grandfather's name. They kept bringing me new combinations, and finally I offered to change it to Kent Clark. I was the only one who thought it was funny," Granger later recalled. Eventually the studio issued a press release announcing Farley Granger, a senior at North Hollywood High School, had been cast in The North Star after he responded to an ad in the local paper. "I thought that was a really dumb story," said Granger. "The truth was much more interesting."
Making the film proved to be a fortunate start to Granger's career. He enjoyed working with director Milestone and fellow cast members Dana Andrews, Teresa Wright, Walter Brennan and Jane Withers, and during filming he met composer Aaron Copland, who remained a friend in later years. When released, the film was ravaged by critics working for newspapers owned by William Randolph Hearst, a staunch anti-Communist who felt the movie was Soviet propaganda.
For Granger's next film, he was loaned out to 20th Century Fox, where Darryl F. Zanuck cast him in The Purple Heart, in which he was directed by Milestone and again co-starred with Dana Andrews. Granger become close friends with supporting cast member Sam Levene, a character actor from New York City who took him under his wing. He also became friends with Roddy McDowall and found himself linked with June Haver in gossip columns and fan magazines.
Paul Baran (1926–2011) was a Polish American engineer who was a pioneer in the development of computer networks. He was one of the three earliest researchers of packet switching techniques, and went on to start several companies and develop other technologies that are an essential part of the Internet and other modern digital communication.
After joining the RAND Corporation that same year, Baran took on the task of designing a "survivable" communications system that could maintain communication between end points in the face of damage from nuclear weapons. At the time of the Cold War, most American military communications used High Frequency connections which could be put out of action for many hours by a nuclear attack. Baran decided to automate RAND director Franklin R. Collbohm's previous work with emergency communication over conventional AM radio networks and showed that a distributed relay node architecture could be survivable. The Rome Air Development Center soon showed that the idea was practicable.
Using the mini-computer technology of the day, Baran and his team developed a simulation suite to test basic connectivity of an array of nodes with varying degrees of linking. That is, a network of n-ary degree of connectivity would have n links per node. The simulation randomly 'killed' nodes and subsequently tested the percentage of nodes who remained connected. The result of the simulation revealed that networks where n ≥ 3 had a significant increase in resilience against even as much as 50% node loss. Baran's insight gained from the simulation was that redundancy was the key. His first work was published a a RAND report in 1960, with more papers generalizing the techniques in the next two years.