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Friday, May 7, 2010

Shaina Magdayao

Shaina García Magdayao (born November 6, 1989 in Quezon City, Philippines), is a Filipina actress, model and singer.

Biography

Career
Shaina Magdayao began her acting career when she was cast, at age seven, in the Philippine drama series Lyra, playing the lead character. She was discovered by ABS-CBN and became part of the Star Magic Family at a young age. Magdayao was included in the cast of the just-revamped Ang TV show, Kaybol. She was then brought together, with two other child actresses of the 1990s, Camille Prats and Serena Dalrymple to star in ABS-CBN's afternoon drama series Marinella, playing the role of Rina. Shaina's older sister is Vina Morales. In 2000, when Shaina was 11 years old, she released a self-titled debut album with Star Records. The carrier single was "Sayaw Sweet Lullabye". The song's music video was often played in the afternoons right before Marinella or youth-oriented shows.
Magdayao has also played daughter to a wide-range of Philippine celebrity "parents" on screen. It was a role like this, in 2003 for the Laurice Guillien helmed project Tanging Yaman, that won her a Best Child Actress award from the FAMAS (Filipino Academy of Movie Arts and Sciences Awards), and Most popular Child Actress Award from the 2002 Guillermo Mendoza Awards. She has also received an award-winning role in the Ai Ai De Las Alas starrer, Ang Tanging Ina. She had also previously received the Best Child Performer award from the Parangal ng Bayan in 1999, and Best New TV Personality in the 1999 Star Awards.
Since then, Magdayao has improved her entertainment career over the years. In 2002, she starred in a weekend afternoon series, called K2BU along with Bea Alonzo, Pia Romero and Angelene Aguilar. At one point, she has appeared in several drama series and sitcoms, while going to school. She started to participate school at home in late 2004, as her schedule became busy.
In 2005, she was included in the cast of the Philippine primetime drama series Ikaw Ang Lahat Sa Akin, along with Claudine Barretto, Diether Ocampo, and Bea Alonzo. It was here that she was paired with actor-dancer Rayver Cruz, who she was also paired with in several productions. She was also one of the lead casts of Erik Matti's television series, Rounin, under Chito Rono's direction, via ABS-CBN in 2006. She is part of the regular cast at ABS-CBN's Sunday afternoon show, ASAP. She starred in Kambal sa uma, an afternoon drama series on ABS-CBN. She's now currently in the popular soap "Rubi".


Modeling
Magdayao began modeling for children's products. As a child, she was a model for children's clothing company, Garfield as well as appearing in television commercials for Magnolia Chocolait, Lemon Squares Products and Goldilocks. She was also one of the youngest models ever for Ben Chan's clothing company Bench, moving up the ranks from modelling Bench products for children. She now models for the women's line of the same clothing company. Magdayao has invested her childhood earnings in business ventures. She currently owns a branch of the family business YSTILO Salon, and a 20-door apartment complex.


Personal life
She is the youngest daughter of Enrique and Deanne Magdayao from Danao City, Cebu. Magdayao is the youngest sister of Vina Morales. She also has two sisters named Sheila and Sheryl. Magdayao was courted for years by Rayver Cruz but she turned him down for another co-actor.
Since 2008, Shaina has been linked to Actor and Dancer John Prats, later confirming a relationship. In January 2010 it was revealed throughout the media that the couple had split in December 2009. It was rumored that she left Prats for another actor, John Lloyd Cruz. The two had not been discreet rather, the two enjoyed going out in public. However, fans are still waiting for Cruz to admit the truth,



Television
2010 Pasion De Amor (Philippine TV series) ABS-CBN
Green Rose Tanya Varugo ABS-CBN
Rubi Maribel dela Fuente ABS-CBN
Maalaala Mo Kaya: "Ketchup" Rox/Roxanne ABS-CBN
2009 May Bukas Pa Lea (In a special guest role) ABS-CBN
Kambal sa Uma Vira Mae Ocampo / Marie Perea ABS-CBN
2008 Komiks Presents: Mars Ravelo's Dragonna Rona / Dragonna ABS-CBN
Your Song: "A Million Miles Away" Lizzie ABS-CBN
Lobo Gabby / Gabrielle Dizon ABS-CBN
2007 Maalaala Mo Kaya: "Telebisyon" Onay ABS-CBN
Your Song: "Break It To Me Gently" Maya ABS-CBN
Your Song: "Just A Smile Away" Joan ABS-CBN
Rounin Selene ABS-CBN
Love Spell: "Shoes Ko Po, Shoes Ko ’Day!" Dianne ABS-CBN
2006 Star Magic Presents: Abt Ur Luv Neri Larazaga ABS-CBN
Star Magic Presents:My Friend, My Love, My Destiny Yeng ABS-CBN
Your Song: "Cuida" Pam Sue ABS-CBN
Love Spell: "Charm & Crystal" Charm ABS-CBN
Komiks Presents: "Bampy" Sampaguita Vendor ABS-CBN
Komiks Presents: "Agua Bendita" Agua / Bendita ABS-CBN
2005 ASAP Herself ABS-CBN
ASAP Fanatic Herself ABS-CBN
Ikaw Ang Lahat Sa Akin Hazel Fontanilla ABS-CBN
Til Death Do Us Part Darling ABS-CBN
2004 Seasons of Love Shane ABS-CBN
2003 Ang Tanging Ina Seven / Severina ABS-CBN
Bida si Mister, Bida si Misis Shaina ABS-CBN
2002 Kay Tagal Kang Hinintay Gwen / Guinivere Martinez ABS-CBN
K2BU Bullet / Violeta Garcia ABS-CBN
2001 Sa Dulo Ng Walang Hanggan Young Carmela ABS-CBN
1999 Flames ---- ABS-CBN
Marinella Rina ABS-CBN
1997 Mula Sa Puso Jennifer ABS-CBN
Kaybol: Ang Bagong TV Herself ABS-CBN
1992 Ang TV Herself ABS-CBN



Movies
Year Title Role
2009 Villa Estrella Ana
2008 Ang Tanging Ina Ninyong Lahat Severina/Seven
2007 Katas ng Saudi Cathy
Bahay Kubo Rose
Happy Hearts Kristine Ricafuente
2003 Ang Tanging Ina Severina/Seven
2002 Agimat: Ang Anting-Anting ni Lolo
Mga Batang Lansangan...Ngayon Sharmaine
2000 Tanging Yaman Carina
1999 Wansapanataym: The Movie Ana
Hinahanap-hanap Kita Nina
1998 Hiling Abi
Pagdating ng Panahon Babe

Source:wikipedia

Kate Winslet

Kate Elizabeth Winslet, (born 5 October 1975) is an English actress and occasional singer. She has received multiple awards and nominations. She is the youngest person to accrue six Academy Award nominations, and won the Academy Award for Best Actress for The Reader (2008). Winslet has been acclaimed for both dramatic and comedic work in projects ranging from period to contemporary films, and from major Hollywood productions to less publicised indie films. She has won awards from the Screen Actors Guild, British Academy of Film and Television Arts, and the Hollywood Foreign Press Association among others, and has been nominated for an Emmy Award for television acting.
Raised in Berkshire, Winslet studied drama from childhood, and began her career in British television in 1991. She made her film debut in Heavenly Creatures (1994), for which she received her first notable critical praise. She achieved recognition for her subsequent work in a supporting role in Sense and Sensibility (1995) and for her leading role in Titanic (1997), the highest grossing film for more than 12 years until 2010.
Since 2000, Winslet's performances have continued to draw positive comments from film critics, and she has been nominated for various awards for her work in such films as Quills (2000), Iris (2001), Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind (2004), Finding Neverland (2004), Little Children (2006), The Reader (2008) and Revolutionary Road (2008). Her performance in the latter prompted New York magazine to describe her as "the best English-speaking film actress of her generation".The romantic comedy The Holiday and the animated film Flushed Away (both 2006) were among the biggest commercial successes of her career.
Winslet was awarded a Grammy Award for Best Spoken Word Album for Children in 2000. She has been included as a vocalist on some soundtracks of works she has performed in, and the single "What If" from the soundtrack for Christmas Carol: The Movie (2001), was a hit single in several European countries. Winslet has a daughter with her former hus


Early life

Born in Reading, Berkshire, Winslet is the daughter of Sally Anne (née Bridges), a barmaid, and Roger John Winslet, a swimming-pool contractor. Her parents were "jobbing actors", which led Winslet to comment that she "didn't have a privileged upbringing" and that their daily life was "very hand to mouth". Her maternal grandparents, Linda (née Plumb) and Archibald Oliver Bridges, founded and operated the Reading Repertory Theatre, and her uncle, Robert Bridges, appeared in the original West End production of Oliver!. Her sisters, Beth and Anna Winslet, are also actresses.
Raised in an Anglican household, Winslet began studying drama at the age of 11 at the Redroofs Theatre School, a co-educational independent school in Maidenhead, Berkshire, where she was head girl.At the age of 12, Winslet appeared in a television advertisement directed by filmmaker Tim Pope for Sugar Puffs cereal. Pope said her naturalism was "there from the start".



Career

1991–1997
Winslet's career began on television, with a co-starring role in the BBC children's science fiction serial Dark Season. This role was followed by appearances in the made-for-TV movie Anglo-Saxon Attitudes in 1992, the sitcom Get Back for ITV and an episode of medical drama Casualty in 1993, also for the BBC.


Winslet at the 2006 Toronto International Film Festival
In 1992, Winslet attended a casting call for Peter Jackson's Heavenly Creatures in London. Winslet auditioned for the part of Juliet Hulme, a teenager who assists in the murder of the mother of her best friend, Pauline Parker (played by Melanie Lynskey). She won the role over 175 other girls. The film included Winslet's singing debut, and her a capella version of "Sono Andata", an aria from La Bohème, was featured on the film's soundtrack.The film was released to favourable reviews in 1994 and won Jackson and partner Fran Walsh a nomination for an Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay.Winslet was awarded an Empire Award and a London Film Critics Circle Award for British Actress of the Year for her performance. The Washington Post writer Desson Thomson commented: "As Juliet, Winslet is a bright-eyed ball of fire, lighting up every scene she’s in. She's offset perfectly by Lynskey, whose quietly smoldering Pauline completes the delicate, dangerous partnership." Speaking about her experience on a film set as an absolute beginner, Winslet noted: "With Heavenly Creatures, all I knew I had to do was completely become that person. In a way it was quite nice doing [the film] and not knowing a bloody thing."
The following year, Winslet auditioned for the small but pivotal role of Lucy Steele in the adaptation of Jane Austen's Sense and Sensibility, featuring Emma Thompson, Hugh Grant, and Alan Rickman.She was instead cast in the second leading role of Marianne Dashwood. Director Ang Lee admitted he was initially worried about the way Winslet had attacked her role in Heavenly Creatures and thus required her to exercise tai chi, read Austen-era Gothic novels and poetry, and work with a piano teacher to fit the grace of the role.Budgeted at US$16.5 million ($23.6 million in current year dollars) the film became a financial and critical success, resulting in a worldwide box office total of US$135 million ($192.7 million) and various awards for Winslet, winning her both a BAFTA and a Screen Actors Guild Award, and nominations for both an Academy Award and a Golden Globe.
In 1996, Winslet starred in both Jude and Hamlet. In Michael Winterbottom's Jude, based on the Victorian novel Jude the Obscure by Thomas Hardy, she played Sue Bridehead, a young woman with suffragette leanings who falls in love with her cousin, played by Christopher Eccleston. Acclaimed among critics, it was not a success at the box office, barely grossing US$2 million ($2.8 million) worldwide. Richard Corliss of Time magazine said "Winslet is worthy of [...] the camera's scrupulous adoration. She's perfect, a modernist ahead of her time [...] and Jude is a handsome showcase for her gifts." Winslet played Ophelia, Hamlet's drowned lover, in Kenneth Branagh's all star-cast film version of William Shakespeare's Hamlet. The film garnered largely positive reviews and earned Winslet her second Empire Award.
In mid-1996, Winslet began filming James Cameron's Titanic (1997), alongside Leonardo DiCaprio.Cast as the sensitive seventeen-year-old Rose DeWitt Bukater, a fictional first-class socialite who survives the 1912 sinking of the RMS Titanic, Winslet's experience was emotionally demanding. "Titanic was totally different and nothing could have prepared me for it. We were really scared about the whole adventure. Jim [Cameron] is a perfectionist, a real genius at making movies. But there was all this bad press before it came out, and that was really upsetting." Against expectations, the film went on to become the highest-grossing film of all time, grossing more than US$1.843 billion ($2.6 billion) in box-office receipts worldwide,and transformed Winslet into a commercial movie star. Subsequently, she was nominated for most of the high-profile awards, winning a European Film Award.



1998–2003
Shot prior to the release of Titanic, Hideous Kinky, a low-budget hippie romance, was Winslet's sole film of 1998. Winslet had rejected offers to play the leading roles in Shakespeare in Love (1998) and Anna and the King (1999) in favour of the role of a young English mother named Julia who moves with her daughters from London to Morocco hoping to start a new life. The film garnered generally mixed reviews and received only limited distribution, resulting in a worldwide gross of US$5 million ($6.5 million). Despite the success of Titanic, the next film Winslet opted to star in was Holy Smoke! (1999), featuring Harvey Keitel, another low-budget project—much to the chagrin of her agents, who felt "miserable" about her preference of arthouse movies. Feeling pressured, Winslet has said she "never saw Titanic as a springboard for bigger films or bigger pay cheques", knowing that "it could have been that, but would have destroyed [her]." The same year, she voiced Brigid in the computer animated film Faeries.
In 2000, Winslet appeared in the period piece Quills with Geoffrey Rush and Joaquin Phoenix, a film inspired by the life and work of the Marquis de Sade. The actress served as somewhat of a "patron saint" of the film for being the first big name to back it, accepting the role of a chambermaid in the asylum and the courier of the The Marquis' manuscripts to the underground publishers. Well-received by critics, the film garnered numerous accolades for Winslet, including nominations for SAG and Satellite Awards. The film was a modest arthouse success, averaging US$27,709 ($35,004) per screen its debut weekend, and eventually grossing US$18 million ($22.7 million) internationally.
In 2001's Enigma, Winslet played a young woman who finds herself falling for a brilliant young World War II code breaker, played by Dougray Scott. It was her first war film, and Winslet regarded "making Enigma a brilliant experience" as she was five months pregnant at the time of the shoot, forcing some tricky camera work from the director Michael Apted. Generally well-received, Winslet was awarded a British Independent Film Award for her performance, and A. O. Scott of The New York Times described Winslet as "more crush-worthy than ever." In the same year she appeared in Richard Eyre's critically acclaimed film Iris, portraying Irish novelist Iris Murdoch. Winslet shared her role with Judi Dench, with both actresses portraying Murdoch at different phases of her life.Subsequently, each of them was nominated for an Academy Award the following year, earning Winslet her third nomination.Also in 2001, she voiced the character Belle in the animated motion picture Christmas Carol: The Movie, based on the Charles Dickens classic novel. For the film, Winslet recorded the song "What If," which was released in November 2001 as a singlewith proceeds donated to two of Winslet's favourite charities, the National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children and the Sargeant Cancer Foundation for Children. A Europe-wide top ten hit, it reached number one in Austria, Belgium, and Ireland, number six on the UK Singles Chart,and won the 2002 OGAE Song Contest.
Her next film role was in the 2003 drama The Life of David Gale, in which she played an ambitious journalist who interviews a death-sentenced professor, played by Kevin Spacey, in his final weeks before execution. The film underperformed at international box offices, garnering only half of its US$ 50,000,000 budget,and generating mostly critical reviews, with Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times calling it a "silly movie."



2004–2006
Following The Life of David Gale, Winslet appeared alongside Jim Carrey in Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind (2004), a neosurrealistic indie-drama by French director Michel Gondry. In the film, she played the role of Clementine Kruczynski, a chatty, spontaneous and somewhat neurotic woman, who decides to have all memories of her ex-boyfriend erased from her mind. The role was a departure from her previous roles, with Winslet revealing in an interview with Variety that she was initially upended about her casting in the film: "This was not the type of thing I was being offered [...] I was just thrilled that there was something he had seen in me, in spite of the corsets, that he thought was going to work for Clementine.” The film was a critical and financial success.Winslet received rave reviews for her Academy Award-nominated performance, which Peter Travers of Rolling Stone described as "electrifying and bruisingly vulnerable."


Winslet at the 61st British Academy Film Awards.
Her final film in 2004 was Finding Neverland. The story of the production focused on Scottish writer J. M. Barrie (Johnny Depp) and his platonic relationship with Sylvia Llewelyn Davies (Winslet), whose sons inspired him to pen the classic play Peter Pan, or The Boy Who Wouldn't Grow Up. During promotion of the film, Winslet noted of her portrayal "It was very important for me in playing Sylvia that I was already a mother myself, because I don’t think I could have played that part if I didn’t know what it felt like to be a parent and have those responsibilities and that amount of love that you give to a child [...] and I've always got a baby somewhere, or both of them, all over my face." The film received favourable reviews and proved to be an international success, becoming Winslet's highest-grossing film since Titanic with a total of $118 million worldwide.
In 2005, Winslet appeared in an episode of BBC's comedy series Extras as a satirical version of herself. While dressed as a nun, she was portrayed giving phone sex tips to the romantically challenged character of Maggie. Her performance in the episode led to her first nomination for an Emmy Award. In Romance & Cigarettes (2005), a musical romantic comedy written and directed by John Turturro, she played the character Tula, described by Winslet as "a slut, someone who’s essentially foulmouthed and has bad manners and really doesn’t know how to dress." Hand-picked by Turturro, who was impressed with her display of dancing ability in Holy Smoke!, Winslet was praised for her performance, which included her interpretation of Connie Francis's "Scapricciatiello (Do You Love Me Like You Kiss Me)".Derek Elley of Variety wrote: "Onscreen less, but blessed with the showiest role, filthiest one-liners, [and] a perfect Lancashire accent that's comical enough in the Gotham setting Winslet throws herself into the role with an infectious gusto."
After declining an invitation to appear in Woody Allen's film Match Point (2005), Winslet stated that she wanted to be able to spend more time with her children. She began 2006 with All the King's Men, featuring Sean Penn and Jude Law. Winslet played the role of Anne Stanton, the childhood sweetheart of Jack Burden (Law). The film was critically and financially unsuccessful Todd McCarthy of Variety summed it up as "overstuffed and fatally miscast [...] Absent any point of engagement to become involved in the characters, the film feels stillborn and is unlikely to stir public excitement, even in an election year."
Winslet fared far better when she joined the cast of Todd Field's Little Children, playing Sarah Pierce, a bored homemaker who has a torrid affair with a married neighbour, played by Patrick Wilson. Both her performance and the film received rave reviews; A.O. Scott of The New York Times wrote: "In too many recent movies intelligence is woefully undervalued, and it is this quality—even more than its considerable beauty—that distinguishes Little Children from its peers. The result is a movie that is challenging, accessible and hard to stop thinking about. Ms. Winslet, as fine an actress as any working in movies today, registers every flicker of Sarah’s pride, self-doubt and desire, inspiring a mixture of recognition, pity and concern that amounts, by the end of the movie, to something like love. That Ms. Winslet is so lovable makes the deficit of love in Sarah’s life all the more painful."For her work in the film, she was honored with a Britannia Award for British Artist of the Year from BAFTA/LA, a Los Angeles-based offshoot of the BAFTA Awards. and nominated for an Academy Award for Best Actress, and at 31, became the youngest actress to ever garner five Oscar nominations.
She followed Little Children with a role in Nancy Meyers' romantic comedy The Holiday, also starring Cameron Diaz, Jude Law, and Jack Black. In it she played Iris, a British woman who temporarily exchanges homes with an American woman (Diaz). Released to a mixed reception by critics, the film became Winslet's biggest commercial success in nine years, grossing more than US$205 million worldwide. Also in 2006, Winslet provided her voice for several smaller projects. In the CG-animated Flushed Away, she voiced Rita, a scavenging sewer rat who helps Roddy (Hugh Jackman) escape from the city of Ratropolis and return to his luxurious Kensington origins. A critical and commercial success, the film collected US$177,665,672 at international box offices.




2007–present

In 2007, Winslet reunited with Leonardo DiCaprio to film Revolutionary Road (2008), directed by her husband Sam Mendes. Winslet had suggested that both should work with her on a film adaptation of the 1961 novel of the same name by Richard Yates after reading the script by Justin Haythe. Resulting in both "a blessing and an added pressure" on-set, the reunion was her first experience working with Mendes. Portraying a couple in a failing marriage in the 1950s, DiCaprio and Winslet watched period videos promoting life in the suburbs to prepare themselves for the film, which earned them favorable reviews. In his review of the film, David Edelstein of New York magazine stated that "[t]here isn’t a banal moment in Winslet’s performance—not a gesture, not a word. Is Winslet now the best English-speaking film actress of her generation? I think so."Winslet was awarded a Golden Globe Award for Best Actress for her performance, her seventh nomination from the Golden Globes.
Also released in late 2008, the film competed against Winslet's other project, a film adaptation of Bernhard Schlink's 1995 novel The Reader, directed by Stephen Daldry and featuring Ralph Fiennes and David Kross in supporting roles. Originally the first choice for her role, she was initially not able to take on the role due to a scheduling conflict with Revolutionary Road, and Nicole Kidman replaced her. A month after filming began, however, Kidman left the role due to her pregnancy, enabling Winslet to rejoin the film. Employing a German accent, Winslet portrayed a former Nazi concentration camp guard who has an affair with a teenager (Kross) who, as an adult, witnesses her war crimes trial. She later said the role was difficult for her, as she was naturally unable "to sympathise with an SS guard." While the film garnered mixed reviews in general,Winslet received favorable reviews for her performance.The following year, she earned her sixth Academy Award nomination and went on to win the Best Actress award, the BAFTA Award for Best Actress, a Screen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Supporting Actress, and a Golden Globe for Best Supporting Actress.
Winslet is set to headline the HBO miniseries Mildred Pierce, a five-hour remake of the 1945 film of the same name, with production slated to begin in April 2010.She was cast in the Steven Soderbergh disaster film, Contagion which is scheduled to film in the fall of 2010.



Personal life

While on the set of Dark Season, Winslet met actor-writer Stephen Tredre, with whom she had a nearly five-year relationship. He died of bone cancer soon after Winslet completed filming Titanic, causing her to miss the film's premiere in order to attend his funeral in London. She and Titanic co-star Leonardo DiCaprio have remained good friends since the filming.
Winslet was later in a relationship with Rufus Sewell, but on 22 November 1998 she married director Jim Threapleton, whom she met while on the set of Hideous Kinky.They have a daughter, Mia Honey, who was born on 12 October 2000 in London. Winslet and Threapleton divorced in 2001, Winslet began a relationship with Sam Mendes, whom she married on 24 May 2003 on the island of Anguilla in the Caribbean. Their son, Joe Alfie Winslet Mendes, was born on 22 December 2003 in New York City. Mendes and Winslet announced a separation in March 2010, stating, "The split is entirely amicable and is by mutual agreement."
Mendes and his production company, Neal Street Productions, purchased the film rights to the long-delayed biography of circus tiger tamer Mabel Stark.[80] The couple's spokesperson said, "It's a great story, they have had their eyes on it for a while. If they can get the script right, it would make a great film."
The media have documented her weight fluctuations over the years. Winslet has been outspoken about her refusal to allow Hollywood to dictate her weight. In February 2003, British GQ magazine published photographs of Winslet which had been digitally altered to make her look dramatically thinner than she really was. Winslet issued a statement that the alterations were made without her consent, saying "I just didn't want people to think I was a hypocrite and that I'd suddenly lost 30 lbs. or whatever". GQ subsequently issued an apology. She won a libel suit in 2009 against British tabloid The Daily Mail after it printed that she lied about her exercise regime. Winslet said she had always expressed the opinion that women should be encouraged to accept their appearance with pride, and therefore "was particularly upset to be accused of lying about my exercise regime, and felt that I had a responsibility to request an apology in order to demonstrate my commitment to the views that I have always expressed about body issues, including diet and exercise."
Winslet and Mendes live in Greenwich Village in New York City. They also own a Grade II-listed five-bedroom house, set in 22 acres in the village of Church Westcote in Gloucestershire, England. After purchasing the house for £3 million, they have reportedly spent a further £1 million in renovations, as the house had fallen into disrepair after the death of its former owner, the equestrian artist Raoul Millais in 1999.
Mendes was scheduled to fly on American Airlines Flight 77, which was hijacked on 11 September 2001 and subsequently crashed into the Pentagon. In October 2001, Winslet was seven hours into a London-Dallas flight with her daughter Mia when a passenger who claimed to be a terrorist, later charged with creating mischief, stood up and shouted "We are all going to die." As a result of these incidents, Winslet and Mendes never fly together on the same aircraft, as they fear leaving their children parentless.



Awards and nominations

Winslet won an Academy Award for Best Actress for her performance in The Reader (2008). She won two Golden Globe Awards in the same year: Best Actress (Drama) for Revolutionary Road and Best Supporting Actress for The Reader. She has won two BAFTA Awards: Best Actress for The Reader, and Best Supporting Actress for Sense and Sensibility (1995). She has earned a total of six Academy Award nominations, seven Golden Globe nominations, and seven BAFTA nominations.
She has received numerous awards from other organisations, including the Los Angeles Film Critics Association Award for Best Supporting Actress for Iris (2001) and the Screen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance by a Female Actor in a Supporting Role for Sense and Sensibility and The Reader. Premiere magazine named her portrayal of Clementine Kruczynski in Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind (2004) as the 81st greatest film performance of all time.


Academy Award nomination milestones
Winslet was 26 when she received her third Academy Award nomination, for Iris, just missing the mark of Natalie Wood, who received her third nomination at age 25. She set the mark as the youngest actor to receive five nominations, at age 31, for Little Children (2006). She surpassed Bette Davis, who was 33 when she received her fifth nomination for her performance in The Little Foxes (1941).With her Best Actress nomination for The Reader, Winslet became the youngest actor to receive six Oscar nominations. At age 33, Winslet passed the mark Davis, one year older, set with Now, Voyager (1942).
Winslet received Academy Award nominations as the younger versions of the characters played by fellow nominees Gloria Stuart, as Rose, in Titanic (1997) and Judi Dench, as Iris Murdoch, in Iris.[94] These are the only instances of the younger and older versions of a character in the same film both yielding Academy Award nominations.
When she was not nominated for her work in Revolutionary Road, Winslet became only the second actress to win a Golden Globe for Best Actress (Drama) without getting an Oscar nomination for the same performance (Shirley MacLaine was the first for Madame Sousatzka [1988], and she won the Golden Globe in a three-way tie). Academy rules allow an actor to receive no more than one nomination in a given category; as the Academy nominating process determined that Winslet's work in The Reader would be considered a lead performance—unlike the Golden Globes, which considered it a supporting performance—she could not also receive a Best Actress nomination for Revolutionary Road.


Awards for other work
In 2000, Winslet won a Grammy Award for Best Spoken Word Album for Children for Listen To the Storyteller. She was nominated for an Emmy Award for Outstanding Guest Actress in a Comedy Series for playing herself in a 2005 episode of Extras.


Filmography

Year Film Role Notes
1991 Dark Season Reet (TV series)
1992 Get Back Eleanor Sweet (TV series)
1994 Heavenly Creatures Juliet Hulme Empire Award for Best British Actress
London Film Critics Circle Award for British Actress of the Year
New Zealand Film and TV Award for Best Foreign Performer
1995 A Kid in King Arthur's Court Princess Sarah
Sense and Sensibility Marianne Dashwood BAFTA Award for Best Actress in a Supporting Role
Evening Standard British Film Award for Best Actress also for Jude
Screen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance by a Female Actor in a Supporting Role
Nominated–Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress
Nominated–Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actress – Motion Picture
Nominated–Screen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance by a Cast in a Motion Picture
1996 Jude Sue Bridehead Evening Standard British Film Award for Best Actress also for Sense and Sensibility
Hamlet Ophelia Empire Award for Best British Actress
Nominated–Satellite Award for Best Supporting Actress - Motion Picture
1997 Titanic Rose DeWitt Bukater Blockbuster Entertainment Award for Favorite Actress – Drama
Empire Award for Best British Actress
European Film Awards – Jameson Audience/People's Choice Award for Best British Actress
Golden Camera – Germany – Film – International (Exceptional work in a non-German production)
Nominated–Academy Award for Best Actress
Nominated–Golden Globe Award for Best Actress – Motion Picture Drama
Nominated–London Film Critics Circle Award for British Actress of the Year
Nominated–MTV Movie Award for Best Performance
Nominated–MTV Movie Award for Best Kiss shared with Leonardo DiCaprio
Nominated–MTV Movie Award for Best On-Screen Duo shared with Leonardo DiCaprio
Nominated–Online Film Critics Society Award for Best Actress
Nominated–European Film Awards – Outstanding Achievement in World Cinema
Nominated–Satellite Award for Best Actress - Motion Picture Drama
Nominated–Screen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance by a Female Actor in a Leading Role
Nominated–Screen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance by a Cast in a Motion Picture
1998 Hideous Kinky Julia
1999 Faeries Brigid (voice)
Holy Smoke! Ruth Barron
2000 Quills Madeleine 'Maddy' LeClerc Evening Standard British Film Award for Best Actress also for Enigma and Iris
Las Vegas Film Critics Society Award for Best Supporting Actress
Nominated–Blockbuster Entertainment Awards – Favorite Actress – Drama
Nominated–London Film Critics Circle Award for British Actress of the Year
Nominated–Satellite Award for Best Supporting Actress - Motion Picture Drama
Nominated–Screen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance by a Female Actor in a Supporting Role
2001 Enigma Hester Wallace Evening Standard British Film Award for Best Actress also for Iris and Quills
Nominated–British Independent Film Award for Best Actress
Christmas Carol: The Movie Belle (voice)
Iris Young Iris Murdoch Empire Award for Best British Actress
Evening Standard British Film Award for Best Actress also for Enigma and Quills
European Film Awards – Jameson Audience/People's Choice Award for Best British Actress
Los Angeles Film Critics Association Award for Best Supporting Actress
Nominated–Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress
Nominated–BAFTA Award for Best Actress in a Supporting Role
Nominated–Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actress – Motion Picture
Nominated–Satellite Award for Best Supporting Actress - Motion Picture
2003 The Life of David Gale Bitsey Bloom
2004 Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind Clementine Kruczynski Empire Award for Best British Actress
International Cinephile Society Award for Best Actress
Las Vegas Film Critics Society Award for Best Actress also for Finding Neverland
London Film Critics Circle Award for British Actress of the Year tied with Eva Birthistle for Ae Fond Kiss...
Online Film Critics Society Award for Best Actress
Santa Barbara International Film Festival – Outstanding Performance of the Year Award also for Finding Neverland
Nominated–Academy Award for Best Actress
Nominated–BAFTA Award for Best Actress in a Leading Role
Nominated–Broadcast Film Critics Association Award for Best Actress
Nominated–Golden Globe Award for Best Actress – Motion Picture Musical or Comedy
Nominated–People's Choice Awards – Favorite Leading Lady
Nominated–People's Choice Awards – Favorite On-Screen Chemistry shared with Jim Carrey
Nominated–Satellite Award for Best Actress - Motion Picture Musical or Comedy
Nominated–Saturn Award for Best Actress
Nominated–Screen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance by a Female Actor in a Leading Role
Finding Neverland Sylvia Llewelyn Davies Las Vegas Film Critics Society Award for Best Actress also for Eternal Sunshine
Santa Barbara International Film Festival – Outstanding Performance of the Year Award also for Eternal Sunshine
Nominated–Broadcast Film Critics Association Award for Best Supporting Actress
Nominated–Screen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance by a Cast in a Motion Picture
Nominated–BAFTA Award for Best Actress in a Leading Role
Nominated–Teen Choice Awards – Choice Movie Actress – Motion Picture Drama
2005 Romance & Cigarettes Tula
2006 All the King's Men Anne Stanton
Little Children Sarah Pierce The Britannia Award for British Artist of the Year
Gotham Awards – Tribute Award
Palm Springs International Film Festival – Desert Palm Achievement Award
Nominated–Academy Award for Best Actress
Nominated–BAFTA Award for Best Actress in a Leading Role
Nominated–Broadcast Film Critics Association Award for Best Actress
Nominated–Chicago Film Critics Association Award for Best Actress
Nominated–Golden Globe Award for Best Actress - Motion Picture Drama
Nominated–London Film Critics Circle Award for British Actress of the Year
Nominated–Online Film Critics Society Award for Best Actress
Nominated–Satellite Award for Best Actress - Motion Picture Drama
Nominated–Screen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance by a Female Actor in a Leading Role
Flushed Away Rita (voice)
The Holiday Iris Simpkins
Deep Sea 3D Narrator (voice)
2008 The Fox and the Child Narrator (voice)
Revolutionary Road April Wheeler Alliance of Women Film Journalists – Best Actress
Detroit Film Critics Society Award for Best Actress
Golden Globe Award for Best Actress - Motion Picture Drama
Las Vegas Film Critics Society Award for Best Actress also for The Reader
London Film Critics Circle Award for Best Actress also for The Reader
Palm Springs International Film Festival – Best Cast Performance
St. Louis Film Critics Association Awards – Best Actress
Vancouver Film Critics Circle Award for Best Actress also for The Reader
Santa Barbara International Film Festival – Montevito Award
Nominated–BAFTA Award for Best Actress in a Leading Role
Nominated–Online Film Critics Society Award for Best Actress
Nominated–Screen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance by a Female Actor in a Leading Role
The Reader Hanna Schmitz Academy Award for Best Actress
BAFTA Award for Best Actress in a Leading Role
Broadcast Film Critics Association Award for Best Supporting Actress
Chicago Film Critics Association Award for Best Supporting Actress
European Film Award for Best Actress
Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actress - Motion Picture
Screen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance by a Female Actor in a Supporting Role
Las Vegas Film Critics Society Award for Best Actress also for Revolutionary Road
London Film Critics Circle Award for Best Actress also for Revolutionary Road
RopeofSilicon Movie Award for Best Supporting Actress
San Diego Film Critics Society Award for Best Actress
Vancouver Film Critics Circle Award for Best Actress also for Revolutionary Road
Nominated–London Film Critics Circle Award for British Actress of the Year
Nominated–MTV Movie Award for Best Performance
Nominated–Online Film Critics Society Award for Best Supporting Actress
Nominated–Satellite Award for Best Actress - Motion Picture Drama

Source:wikipedia

Point Blank (film)

Point Blank is a 1967 crime film directed by John Boorman and starring Lee Marvin and Angie Dickinson, adapted from the classic pulp novel The Hunter by Donald E. Westlake, writing as Richard Stark. Boorman directed the film at Marvin's request and Marvin played a central role in the film's development and staging

Plot

Walker (Lee Marvin) – originally named "Parker" in Stark's novel – works together with his friend Mal Reese (John Vernon in his first major role) to steal a large amount of cash from a courier transporting funds for a major gambling operation, with the deserted Alcatraz island as a drop point.
Reese then double-crosses Walker by shooting him multiple times, leaving him for dead. Reese also makes off with Walker's wife Lynne (Sharon Acker).
Walker recovers from the shooting. With assistance from the mysterious Yost (Keenan Wynn), who seems to know everything about everybody, Walker sets out to find Reese, take his revenge and recover the $93,000 he is owed. Reese used all of the money from the job to pay back a debt to a crime syndicate called "The Organization" and get back in its good graces.
With memories of happy times together, Walker goes to Los Angeles to pay back his wife and his best friend for their treachery. He bursts in on Lynne and riddles her bed with bullets, just in case Reese is in it. A distraught Lynne tells him she no longer wants to live, then takes an overdose of pills.
Walker is told that a car dealer named Stegman (Michael Strong) might know where Reese can be found. He takes Stegman for a wild ride in one of his new cars, smashing the car and terrorizing him until Stegman reveals where Reese is living. He is told that Reese has now taken up with Walker's sister-in-law, Chris.
Breaking in on Chris (Angie Dickinson), he learns that she actually despises Reese and had considered Walker the best thing ever to happen to her sister. Willing to help in any way, Chris agrees to a sexual tryst with Reese inside his heavily guarded penthouse apartment just so she can gain access and unbolt a door for Walker.
Walker ties up some men in an apartment across from the penthouse and has them call the police to report a robbery to create a diversion enabling him to slip into the penthouse unnoticed.
With a gun to Reese's head, Walker persuades him to give up the names of his Organization superiors – Carter, Brewster (Carroll O'Connor) and Fairfax – so that he can make somebody pay back his $93,000. He then forces a naked Reese off the balcony and watches him plunge to his death.
After next confronting Carter (Lloyd Bochner) for his money, Walker is set up. A hit man (James B. Sikking) with a high-powered rifle is assigned to kill him at a planned money drop point in a storm drain river run off, but instead Walker sees to it that Carter and Stegman are the ones who get shot.
Yost takes him to Brewster's home where Walker stays to wait for Brewster. Chris makes love with Walker but is repulsed by how cold he has become. "You did die at Alcatraz that day," she says. The following morning Walker ambushes and points a gun at Brewster, demanding his money. Brewster insists that no one will pay, but Walker says if Brewster won't, he will kill him and try Fairfax next.
They return to Alcatraz, which is still being used as a drop. Brewster brings a case that he claims contains the money. Walker doesn't trust him and refuses to show himself. The hit man is also in the darkness with his rifle. Brewster is shot. It is Yost who emerges from the shadows, whereupon Brewster calls out to Walker: "This is him. This is Fairfax!"
Walker is encouraged to come claim his money, but he stays in the shadows instead.


Production

This was the first film ever to shoot at Alcatraz, the infamous prison which had been shut down since 1963, only three years before the production.


Cast

Lee Marvin as Walker
Angie Dickinson as Chris
Keenan Wynn as Yost
Carroll O'Connor as Brewster
Lloyd Bochner as Frederick Carter
Michael Strong as Stegman
John Vernon as Mal Reese
Sharon Acker as Lynne
James B. Sikking as Hired Gun


Style

Set primarily in and around Los Angeles, Point Blank combines elements of film noir with stylistic touches of the European nouvelle vague, sun-drenched scenery, psychological themes, sudden violence, complex flashbacks, rapid rhythm changes, and sound effects.


Reception

In her 1967 New Yorker review of Bonnie and Clyde, Pauline Kael wrote: "A brutal new melodrama is called Point Blank, and it is."Roger Ebert writing in his review of the film, said "as suspense thrillers go Point Blank is pretty good."David Thomson praises the film: "Point Blank is a masterpiece... iconographic... urban thriller... a crucial film in the development of cinema's portrait of... organized crime."[citation needed]. Kael later call Point Blank "intermittently dazzling".
Slant Magazine reviewer Nick Schager notes in a 2003 review: "What makes Point Blank so extraordinary, however, is not its departures from genre conventions, but Boorman's virtuoso use of such unconventional avant-garde stylistics to saturate the proceedings with a classical noir mood of existential torpor and romanticized fatalism."

Influence

On March 29, 1968, Point Blank was screened at Cinelândia movie theaters in order to protest the murder of 18-year-old high school student Edson Luís de Lima Souto by the Military Police of Rio de Janeiro. Souto was shot at point-blank range. Phrases such as "Does bullets kill hunger?", "Old people in power, young people in coffin", and "They killed a student... what if it was your son?" were written by protesters in the movie posters. The aftermath of Souto's death was one of the first major public protests against the Brazilian military dictatorship.
Point Blank was loosely remade as the Hong Kong action film Full Contact (1992). It was remade again in Hollywood as Payback (1999). Outside the United States, Payback was distributed by Warner Bros., which acquired the rights to Point Blank through its 1996 merger with Turner Entertainment, which owns the pre-1986 MGM library.

Source:wikipedia

Krisdayanti

Krisdayanti (born March 24, 1975 in Malang, East Java) is the first Asia Bagus Grand Champion from Indonesia.She then been dubbed as Asia's Nightingale.The first recording that she did was when she was just a 9-year-old girl. For that, she received Rp 15,000 for dubbing the Megaloman soundtrack. Her next album was Burung-Burung Malam. She recorded it at the age of 12. However, her album did not do well.

During her high-school days, she participated in many singing competitions and modeling pageants. In 1991, she became a finalist in Gadis Sampul, a cover girl contest. It was also during that period she met James Sundah and recorded two songs for him. With that, she began to receive many invitations to sing and model.
It was Youngki Suwarno who brought Krisdayanti to an Asia Bagus audition. There, she felt inferior because of her appearance. The other contestants were decked in glittering show dresses whereas she was simply dressed in jeans and T-shirt.
After her winning, she became a star instantly. With eight albums to her credit and a few singles, she has reached superstardom. She is not only known in her country but around the Southeast Asian region as well.
She married Anang Hermansyah, Indonesian famous song writer, singer and producer, in 1996. They had two kids together, a daughter, Titania Aurelia Hermansyah, and a son, Azriel Hermansyah. The couple filed for divorced in 2009.

Discography

Album
Megaloman OST (1984)
Burung-Burung Malam (1987)
The Best of Cipta Pesona Bintang, James F. Sundah's Collections (1990)
Asia Bagus (Pony Canyon, Singapore) (1993)
Terserah (1995)
Hanya Tuhan (1995)
Cinta (1996)
Kasih (1997)
Demi Cinta (1998)
Sayang (1998)
Soundtrack Doaku Harapanku (1998)
Buah Hati (1999)
Menghitung Hari (1999)
Mencintaimu (2000)
Makin Aku Cinta (2001)
Konser KD (2001)
Menuju Terang (2002)
Cahaya (2004)
Kompilasi 3 Diva (Semua Jadi Satu) (2006)
10 Tahun Pertama (2006)
Krisdayanti (2007)
Selusin (2008)
Dilanda Cinta (2009)
Aku Wanita Biasa (2009)
CTKD: Canda, Tangis, Ketawa, Duka (duet album with Siti Nurhaliza) (2009)


Singles
Krisdayanti (Pony Canyon, Japan) (1993)
Abad 21 (1998)
Doaku Harapanku (Doa) (1998)



Filmografi
[edit]Sinetron
None (TPI, 1993)
Cemplon (SCTV, 1994)
Saat Memberi Saat Menerima (RCTI, 1995)
Istana Impian (RCTI, 1996)
Abad 21 (Indosiar, 1997)
Istri Pilihan (RCTI, 1997)
Doaku Harapanku I (RCTI, 1998)
Doaku Harapanku II (RCTI, 1999)
Terpesona (Indosiar, 2000)
Mencintaimu (SCTV, 2001)
Doa dan Anugerah I (Indosiar, 2002)
Doa dan Anugerah II (Indosiar, 2003)
Mukjizat Allah (Indosiar, 2005)



Advertising

Mustika Puteri (1991 - 1995)
Hers Protex (1994)
Hemaviton Action (1997-2007)
McDonalds (1997-2000)
Kirin (1999-2000)
Marimas (2001)
Tradia Peanuts (2003)
Laxing (2005-present)
Indomie (2006-2007)
Laxing Tea (2009-present)

Source:wikipedia

Sri Mulyani Indrawati

Sri Mulyani Indrawati (born August 26, 1962) is an Indonesian economist. She has been recently appointed the Managing Director of the World Bank Group and resigned as Finance Minister of Indonesia.
Mulyani received her doctorate in economics from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in 1992. She is an executive director of the International Monetary Fund representing 12 economies in Southeast Asia. In 2001, Mulyani left for Atlanta, United States, to serve as a consultant with the U.S. Aid Agency USAID for programs to strengthen Indonesia’s autonomy. She lectured on the Indonesian economy at Georgia University. She successfully tackled corruption in Indonesia's tax and customs office, and enjoys a reputation for integrity. In August 2008, Mulyani was ranked by Forbes Magazine as the 23rd most powerful woman in the world and the most powerful in Indonesia.
On May 5, 2010 Mulyani was appointed as one of three Managing Directors of the World Bank Group.


Source:wikipedia

Tata Indica

The Tata Indica is a hatchback automobile range manufactured by Tata Motors of India. The models have also been exported to Europe, Africa and other countries since late in 2004. It is the first passenger car vehicle from Tata Motors. The Tata Indica is also considered India's first indigenously developed passenger car. As of August 2008, more than 910,000 Indicas were produced. The annual sales of Indica has been as high as 144,690 units in 2006-07 . Current monthly sales of Indica is around 8000 units.
In the UK a badge engineered version was imported by the MG Rover Group and sold as the Rover CityRover. Other popular foreign markets include South Africa where the Indica and the Indicab models (known as B Line) are sold.

History

On 30 December 1998, Tata Motors (previously called TELCO) introduced the most modern car ever to be designed by an Indian company: the Indica. Marketed with slogans like "The Big... Small Car" and "More car per car," the ad campaign focused on roomy interiors and affordability. Within a week of its unveiling in 1999, the company received 115,000 bookings.[3] In two years, the Indica became the number one car in its segment.
Partly designed and developed by Tata Motors, it is a five-door compact hatchback with a 1.4 L petrol/diesel I4 engine designated as 475DL internally. This is a homegrown engine which is derived from the engine used by Tata in their line of pickups and SUVs earlier but with a reduced stroke. The original engine was designated as 483DL which stood for 4 cylinder and 83 mm stroke.
The Indica offered options like air conditioning and electric windows, which were previously restricted to only upmarket imported cars in India. Three years later the Indica was exported to European markets for the first time, and from 2003 the Indica was badge engineered and sold in the UK as the Rover CityRover. This vehicle ceased production in April 2005 when MG Rover went bankrupt, and did not resume production when new owners Nanjing Automobile launched its own versions of the MG Rover range in 2007.
The outer body styling was done by Italian design house I.DE.A Institute, under contract from Tata Motors, with heavy interaction with Tata's in-house design team. The engine, however, was indigenous.


Accessories and optional extras

The following range of accessories were available for the Indica:
Power steering
HVAC - Heater, ventilation, and air conditioning
Turbocharger and intercooler
Alloy wheels
Power windows
Central locking with remote key-less entry
Ventilated disc brakes
4 spoke steering wheel
Tinted windshields
Powerful fog lamps
Rear spoiler with integrated LED stop lamp
Luxurious beige/black interiors
Night adjust rear view mirror
Chrome tip on silencer, chrome lining on grill and bonnet
Audio warnings—driver/passenger seat belt warning, door open warning
Tacho meter (selected models)
child lock on rear doors (selected models)
alloy pedals
ABS and airbags


Indica V1 and V2 (1998-present) (1st generation)

Indica V1 and V2

Production 1998-present
Body style(s) 5-door hatchback
Engine(s) 1.2L 65.3 hp (48.7 kW) I4
1.4 L 70 hp (52 kW) I4
1.4 L 53.5 hp (39.9 kW) diesel I4
1.4 L 62 hp (46 kW) turbodiesel I4
1.4 L 68 hp (51 kW) Intercooled turbodiesel I4
1.4 L 70 hp (52 kW) DiCOR I4
Transmission(s) 5-speed manual
Wheelbase 2,400 millimetres (94 in)
Length 3,690 millimetres (145 in)
Base: 3,675 millimetres (144.7 in)
Width 1,665 millimetres (65.6 in)
Top Version: 1,485 millimetres (58.5 in)
Height 1,485 millimetres (58.5 in)
Top Version: 1,500 millimetres (59 in)
Designer I.DE.A Institute
When first launched, the Indica prompted many complaints from early purchasers, who claimed that the vehicle did not deliver horsepower and gas mileage as promised.[citation needed] In response to the customer complaints, Tata Motors greatly re-engineered the internals of the car and launched it as Indica V2 (version 2), which solved most of the complaints and emerged as one of the most sought after cars in the Indian automobile industry. Later, it was again updated, now marketed as the "Refreshingly New Indica V2". This was followed by the next variant of Indica, current in early 2008, called the Indica V2 Xeta Petrol, which delivers 70 PS (51 kW; 69 hp) of power at a fuel efficiency of 14 km/l (about 33 mpg U.S., fuel consumption of 7.1 L/100 km) under standard test conditions. In Indian city conditions, fuel economy can drop to about 10 km/l (about 23.5 mpg U.S., 10 L/100 km).
Since the V1 and V2 which were visually identical, Tata had applied styling updates to the Indica in 2004 and 2007.
In India, three versions were available with different trim levels.
Indica V2 — 1.4 L diesel (naturally aspirated engine in the DLE and DLS; turbocharged option in the DLS; turbocharged and intercooled DLG and DLX; DiCOR engine offered in the DLS and DLG);
Indica V2 XETA — 1.2 L petrol (GL: without AC; GLE: with AC; GLS: with AC & Power Steering), 1.2 L LPG (GLE & GLS versions only);
Indicab — 1.4 L naturally aspirated diesel (DL and DLE), a low-price car with the same framework but fewer features and luxuries, aimed at cab and contract transport business fleets. Very popular among transport business people.
Originally offered with 1.4L petrol and diesel engines, a turbocharged diesel engine was introduced in October 2005; a 1.2L petrol engine in November 2006 and a DiCOR (Direct Injection Common Rail) diesel version of Indica V2 was launched in January 2008. It features 16 valves, double overhead camshafts, a variable geometry turbocharger and an intercooler. The top end GLG, GLX, DLG, DLX versions and the turbo and DiCOR diesel engines, as well as the 1.4L petrol engines have been phased out with the introduction of the next generation Indica Vista.
A compressed natural gas (CNG) was launched in 2001. It is offered as an option through OEM Bedini kits offered by Shrimanker Gas Services India on the Indica V2 XETA.
Faced with numerous CNG-related complaints, TATA organized a systematic recall and retrofit of Bedini equipment which included a new improved Lamda sensor / electronic control unit, Bedini emulator and new wiring harness approved and tested by both TATA and ARAI (Automotive Research Association of India) from 28–31 May 2007. With the new system, TATA aims to improve gas delivery and performance.
In its home market, the Indica offers good interior capacity and competes with the Maruti Suzuki Swift, Maruti Wagon-R, Maruti Alto, the Hyundai Santro and the Fiat Palio. The diesel versions, however, have little or no competition since no other diesel cars exist in the Indica's price bracket.
The slightly higher-than-average net weight makes for a comfortable ride compared to lighter cars. Fit and finish continue be criticized compared to offerings from Fiat and Maruti.
The Indica platform spawned a number of variants, including the Tata Indigo three-box saloon which includes the shorter Indigo CS, Long wheelbase XL and the Indigo Marina estate.


Indica Vista (2008-present) (2nd generation)

Indica Vista

Also called Indica V3
Production 2008-present
Body style(s) 5-door hatchback
Engine(s) 1.2 L 65 hp (48 kW)FIRE I4
1.4 L 71 hp (53 kW) turbodiesel I4
1.3 L 75 hp (56 kW)JTD I4
Transmission(s) 5-speed manual
Wheelbase 2,470 millimetres (97 in)
Length 3,795 millimetres (149.4 in)
Width 1,695 millimetres (66.7 in)
Height 1,550 millimetres (61 in)
Designer Tata Motors, evolution of V2
The Indica Vista was unveiled at the 9th Auto Expo in New Delhi. The Indica Vista is not a facelift of the Indica. It is built on a completely new platform and shares nothing with the existing Indica. This new version is bigger than the previous Indica, it is 3,795 mm (149.4 in) long with a wheelbase of 2,470 mm (97.2 in). The Indica Vista has two new engines, a 1.3 L Quadra Jet common rail direct injection diesel and a 1.2 L Safire MPFI VVT petrol engine. It is also available with the 1.4L TDi(Turbo Diesel). The Quadra Jet (Fiat JTD) is produced in Ranjangaon by the Tata-Fiat joint venture. The Indica Vista, rumoured as the Indica V3 till then, was launched in August 2008


Tata Indica Vista Specifications
1.4 TDI 1.3 Quadrajet 1.2 Safire
Top speed - - -
0 to 100 km/h (62 mph) - - -
Engine Type 475 IDI Turbo 1.3L SDE Common, Quadrajet Diesel engine New 1.2L, MPFI, Safire Petrol engine
Displacement 1,405 cc (85.7 cu in) 1,248 cc (76.2 cu in) 1,172 cc (71.5 cu in)
Power 71 PS (52 kW; 70 hp) @ 4500 rpm 75 PS (55 kW; 74 hp) @ 4000 rpm 65 PS (48 kW; 64 hp) @ 5500 rpm
Torque 135 N·m (100 ft·lbf) @2500 rpm 190 N·m (140 ft·lbf) @1750 rpm 96 N·m (71 ft·lbf) @3000 rpm
Valve Mechanism - - -
Cylinder Configuration Inline 4 Inline 4 Inline 4
Fuel Type Diesel Diesel Petrol
Fuel System ID TC CRDI MPFI
Minimum Turning Radius - - -
Wheelsize 14 in (360 mm) 14 in (360 mm) 13 in (330 mm)
Tires 175 / 65 R14 (tubeless) 175 / 65 R14 (tubeless) 175 / 70 R 13 (tubeless)
Ground Clearance 165 mm (6.5 in) 165 mm (6.5 in) 165 mm (6.5 in)

Indica Vista EV (Electric version)

Tata Indica EV


Tata Indica EV engine bay
Electric versions of the Indica (the Indica EV) is scheduled to be launched in India in 2011. The electric will be based on the Indica Vista. Electrovaya’s batteries are expected to give 120 miles (190 km) on a single charge  is undergoing testing. The electric version will utilize Lithium ion batteries for higher power. Once charged, the car can travel up to 200 kilometers. The car has started roll out in the end of 2008 and in Spain in 2010-08-11
The company has indicated that the electric Indica would be launched locally in India in about 2010, without disclosing the price. The vehicle would be launched in Norway in 2009 and also would go on sale in continental Europe and the UK.
The government (Business Secretary Lord Mandelson) has announced a £10 (€11.09) million loan to Tata to support the manufacturing of electric vehicles in the UK.
Tata Motors' UK subsidiary, Tata Motors European Technical Centre, has bought a 50.3% holding in electric vehicle technology firm Miljø Grenland/Innovasjon of Norway for US$1.93 M, which specialises in the development of innovative solutions for electric vehicles, and plans to launch the electric Indica hatchback in Europe in 2010. Electrovaya is partnering with Tata Motors and Miljø Grenland/Innovasjon to manufacture batteries and electric cars using Electrovaya’s Lithium Ion SuperPolymer battery technology.
It is expected to have a 200 km (120 mi) range on a full charge and a top speed of 105 kilometres per hour (65 mph) .With 0 to 60kms in less than 10 seconds. To achieve this, TM4 (a subsidiary of Hydro-Québec) provides an efficient MФTIVETM series electric motor.
[edit]Indica Silhouette concept car

During India's 2006 Auto Expo in New Delhi, Tata unveiled the Indica Silhouette concept car, a radical, high-performance Indica featuring rear-wheel drive, extensive bodywork, and a 3.5 litre 330 hp (246 kW) V6.[25] The car is capable of accelerating from 0–100 km/h in 4.5 seconds, and maxes out at 270 km/h (170 mph). The Silhouette is currently only a concept vehicle, and is completely different from the standard Indica.


Indica Rally Version

A homologated 1500 cc 115 bhp (86 kW) Indica with sporting suspension and capable of 180 km/h (110 mph) was prepared jointly by Tata Motors and J. Anand of Jayem Automotives.

Source:wikipedia

Suzuki Alto

The Suzuki Alto is a small car (kei car) designed by Suzuki. Its selling points include low price and good fuel economy. The model was introduced in 1979 and has been built in many countries worldwide.


1st generation (SS30/40)

European Suzuki Alto SS40
Suzuki Alto

Alto Van (SS30)
Manufacturer Suzuki
Also called Suzuki Fronte
Production 1979—1984
The 1st generation (SS30/40), introduced in 1979, was a 3-door cargo version of the Fronte passenger car, equipped with a folding rear seat. The Alto used either the T5A two-stroke 539 cc (SS30) or F5A four-stroke 543 cc (SS40) three-cylinder engine, producing 28 hp (21 kW) and 31 hp (23 kW) respectively. In export markets, the Alto name was used for the passenger car versions as well as commercials, while the van was marketed as the "Suzuki Hatch" in Australia. The four-doors were not proper hatchbacks, only featuring an opening rear window.
While Suzuki held on to the two-stroke engine concept for over a decade longer than any of its Japanese competition, eventually market pressures and ever tightening emissions regulations spelled its end in the Alto by September 1981. The Jimny, however, did use the same 539 cc engine as late as 1987.


2nd generation (CA71)

Suzuki Alto CA71
Suzuki Alto
Manufacturer Suzuki
Also called Maruti 800
Suzuki Mehran
Production 1984-1988
Related Chang'an SC7080 Alto
JN Auto (CN) / Zotye JN AUTO (USA)
Iran Khodro Alto (IR)
SAIPA Nasim (IR)
Peugeot JN Mini (TN)
The 2nd generation (CA71/72) was introduced in 1984. It continued with the SS40's engine, but was also available with turbocharged and multi-valve engines in the "Works" series. A 5-door body (identical to the Fronte's) became available in 1985. A Cervo on the SS71 base was introduced in 1988, with a new 547-cc engine. Four-wheel drive was also available. The car still remains in production in India and Pakistan. While the Indian version utilizes a 796cc MPFI engine, the Pakistani version still uses a 1980s era 796cc Suzuki SS80 carburetor based engine. Another version called Zotye JN AUTO is still in production for the Chinese, Central and South American markets. The production site of this 2008 reworked version is in Phoenix, Arizona and is intended only for export. The Zotye JN AUTO is the direct successor of the Chinese JN Auto. Both car modells are products of the ZhangJianGang JiangNan AutoMobile Manufacture CO.,LTD (or short: Jiangnan Automobile). Petrol engine are used in the US version. The entry-level model comes with a three-cylinder engine and has a displacement of 796 cc and a power of 26,5 kW. However, the top engine is a four-cylinder engine with an displacement of 1051 cc and an output of 38.5 kW. The JN Auto was between 1983 and 2005 the vehicle with the highest production of units in the People's Republic of China. Every year, the company has produced more than 240,000 units of the JN Auto. This and a very cheap price are the reasons why this model still dominates the daily image of the roads in China.


3rd generation (HA215)

Alto Works HA21S
Suzuki Alto
Manufacturer Suzuki
Production 1988-1994
The 3rd generation (CL11/21/22) replaced the CA71 in 1988. It had strikingly angular styling, with an unusual glazed C-pillar on the 5-door. Initially it used the SS71 Cervo's engine, but when the kei-car standards were changed in 1990 the capacity was increased to 657 cc. This was the last generation of Alto to have an associated Fronte model. An unusual feature of this generation was the availability of a version with sliding doors, the Slide Slim, intended to make it easier to enter and exit in tight spaces. Suzuki also produced a version (the Hustle) with a high roof behind the front seats, which was unusual in that it used a modification of the Alto's body rather than a completely new body; this made it possible to link the Hustle with the Alto, but made the styling rather unharmonious. Its appearance was similar to the Nissan AD Max van.



4th generation (HA11)

4th generation Suzuki Alto (1997 - 1998) HA11
Suzuki Alto
Manufacturer Suzuki
Also called Chang'an SC7080 City Baby
Production 1994-1998
The 4th generation (HA11) appeared in 1994. The 657-cc engines were joined by a new high-performance 658-cc. The styling displays an interesting blend of features: the tailgate and rear doors are still fairly angular, but the front is beginning to be more rounded - a trend which would be continued in later years.



5th generation (HA22)
Suzuki Alto HA22
Suzuki Alto

Manufacturer Suzuki
Also called Chang'an SC7090 Zen
Production 1998-2004
2000-(Pakistan)
The 5th generation Alto (HA12/22) was introduced in 1998. The styling was generally more rounded, the shape of the cabin showing the Alto's relationship with the new Kei. The 658-cc engine was produced in a version without a turbocharger, joining the turbocharged version and the 657-cc engines. Several derivatives were produced from this generation. Suzuki produced two "classic-style" versions: the Alto C  with a deep chrome grille and a curious headlamp arrangement by which circular main lamps were joined with ovoid sidelights and indicators, which was shared with the Alto Works ; and the Alto C2  which had separate headlamps and sidelights and a wider grille. Mazda also sold the standard Alto as the Carol, and Mitsuoka used the Carol as a basis for their Ray.



6th generation (HA24)



Suzuki Alto HA24
Suzuki Alto
Manufacturer Suzuki
Also called Chevrolet Alto
Maruti-Suzuki Alto
Production 2004—Present
The 6th generation (HA24) was introduced in 2004. The bonnet and headlamps curved down at the front, giving a similar effect to the Toyota WiLL Vi or the Citroen C2. The Alto was re-aligned within the range to accommodate new models such as the Cervo and Alto Lapin. In Japan, this version of the Alto was rebadged as the Nissan Pino and the Mazda Carol.




7th generation (2009-present): Maruti Suzuki A-Star

Maruti Suzuki A-Star

Manufacturer Maruti Suzuki
Also called Suzuki Alto
Suzuki Celerio
Changhe-Suzuki Alto
Nissan Pixo
Assembly Manesar, Haryana, India
Predecessor Maruti Alto
Class City car
Body style(s) 5-door hatchback
Engine(s) 1.0L I3 MPFI Petrol
Transmission(s) 5-speed manual
4-speed automatic
Wheelbase 2,360 mm (92.9 in)
Length 3,580 mm (140.9 in)
Width 1,680 mm (66.1 in)
Height 1,400 mm (55.1 in)
The 7th Generation is known in India as the Maruti Suzuki A-Star, but is also known as the Suzuki Celerio or Nissan Pixo in other places worldwide. It was launched in December 2008 by the Indo-Japanese auto maker Maruti Suzuki. It is the next generation Suzuki Alto and is exported worldwide. It is available in European markets as Nissan Pixo. The car was rolled out to the Indian customers in December 2008 and exports began in April 2009. A-Star means Alto-Star.
It comes in three variants - LXi, VXi and ZXi.
The initial expected prices in the Indian market are INR345,000 (ex-showroom Delhi) for the LXI, INR372,000 for the VXI and INR406,000 for the ZXI. With this price tag, the car is targeted at customers with budgets somewhere between the Zen Estilo and the Swift.
With a totally new body and engine, Maruti hopes to bring freshness to the Indian car market, of which it already holds a major share. Initial reviews have been positive. It has a fresh new dashboard, with a unique protruding tachometer besides the usual meter cowl (only in the ZXi trim). It is the fourth model after Swift, SX4 and Grand Vitara which has helped Maruti to make stylish cars, something which it was unknown for during older models.
Though the drive is comfortable for the front row, rear seating is a little small for taller passengers. The interiors have been reported to be a bit cramped as compared to the Hyundai i10, its closest competitor.[citation needed] It has the new K10B series engine, which Suzuki says is technically highly developed and gives a balance of fuel efficiency and power.[citation needed] The ZXi is the fully loaded version with all the expected features like power windows, central lock, ABS, rear wiper, fog lamps, CD player, airbags etc.
It is claimed to be the only car which will be available in 200 variants.[citation needed] It has won Best Small car award 2009 from AutocarIndia and Topgear.[citation needed] Technology of the Year from Overdrive.
On 23 February,2010 Maruti Suzuki announced a recall of about 100,000 cars due to a fault discovered in the fuel pump of the car.


Maruti Alto

Maruti Alto

Manufacturer Maruti Suzuki India Ltd
Parent company Maruti Udyog
Production 2000–present
Predecessor Maruti 800
Successor Maruti Suzuki A-STAR
Class Subcompact
Body style(s) 5-door hatchback
Layout FF layout
Engine(s) 796 MPFI engine with 32bit ECM
Transmission(s) 5-speed manual
Wheelbase 2,360 mm (92.9 in)
Length 3,495 mm (137.6 in)
Width 1,475 mm (58.1 in)
Height 1,460 mm (57.5 in)
Kerb weight 720 kg (1,587 lb) (Kerb)
Fuel capacity 35 L (8 imp gal; 9 US gal)
Related Maruti Suzuki A-STAR
Maruti 800
Suzuki Alto
The Maruti Alto is the Indian-built Suzuki Alto version, manufactured by Maruti Suzuki in India. It was launched in the local Indian market on September 27, 2000[2] although the Alto nameplate was very successfully being used to export the Maruti Zen to Europe from India since around 1994[3] having captured over 40% market share in Belgium and 33% in Netherlands by 1998. It is the best-selling hatchback in India[2]. Since 2006, It is India's largest selling car and crossed the 1 million production figure in February 2008 becoming the 3rd Maruti model to cross the million mark in India after Maruti 800 and Maruti Omni and 4th overall joining Hyundai Santro. Besides being exported to Europe from 1994–2004, it has also been exported to several other countries.


Specifications
The Alto is powered by a 796 cc gasoline engine with 3 cylinder, 4 valves per cylinder MPFI engine with 32bit ECM.
Maximum Power: 47 PS (35 kW)
Acceleration 0–100 km/h: approximately 20 seconds
Top Speed: 137 km/h (85 mph)[citation needed]


Variant
The Alto is offered in the following variants
Base model - (non-ac, launched in 2004[8], Mumbai price approx. 2.4 lakh Rs. as of December 2008[9])
LX - Base model with A/c, cup holders, fabric seats , remote fuel lid opener and few small changes, Mumbai price approx. 2.7-2.75 lakh Rs. as of December 2008
LXi - Same as LX with power steering, Mumbai price 2.85-2.9 lakh Rs. as of December 2008[9]
There used to be a VX/VXi model with a 4-cylinder 1061 cc engine (64 bhp/80 Nm torque) launched in April 2001. This has now been discontinued. But this VX model is still sold in certain European countries. The Alto VX model also featured a tachometer which was absent in LX model. All models are equipped with 5-speed manual transmission.
The popularity of the Alto has increased over the past few years, mainly due to the reduction in prices. This reduction in prices has mainly come in due to the reduction in excise duty over time. Alto was the first brand In Indian Domestic Automotive History to sell over 200,000 units in a single financial year, the last 100,000 units being sold in 5 months. Alto was the only brand to sell over 22,000 units in a single month, making it the largest selling car in India.
[edit]Second generation
Generation II
Production 2008–present
Body style(s) 3-door hatchback
5-door hatchback
Transmission(s) 5-speed manual
The second generation Maruti Alto is based on the new Suzuki Alto, and is unveiled at the 2008 Paris Motor Show. It is based on the Suzuki A-Star Concept global car.

Performance versions

Performance versions of the Alto started to appear in 1985 when a turbocharged engine was made available. The CA71 gradually acquired more performance-related modifications until the Works version was introduced in 1987. The Alto Works was the first kei-car to reach the legal limit of 64 hp (48 kW). It acquired considerable popularity, and models of it are still made by Fujimi.
The performance models continued in the Alto's later versions; as technology and the kei car regulations changed more performance became available, and incarnations such as the RS/X and RS-Z were released. By 1999 the top engine was a light-alloy 658-cc with turbocharger, DOHC and 4 valves per cylinder, which produced 64 Ps (2,000 Ma) and 80 lbf·ft (110 N·m).
As Suzuki introduced new models into the kei car class, it began to spread the performance engines to other models and designate the Alto as a less costly model. The current Alto is only available with 54PS in Japan; the 64ps engine is now provided in models such as the Kei Works and the Alto Lapin SS.




Export markets



European Suzuki Alto (= Cervo Mode)


European 2004 Suzuki Alto GL with aftermarket fog lights added


The Suzuki Alto European market version of the Maruti Suzuki A-Star
Early Altos were exported with few changes apart from enlarged engines and bodywork and different nomenclature. So the SS40 became the SS80 with a 796-cc engine. (Some Fronte models were also called Alto in Europe.) However, as Suzuki made agreements with companies such as Maruti to build their models, it began to be possible to sell different models to different areas:
The CA71 is made with the 796-cc engine in India as the Maruti 800, in Pakistan by Pak Suzuki as the Mehran 800, and in China by (among others) Chang'an, Jiangbei and Jiangnan. This model, rather than the CL11, was exported to Europe until 1994.
The CL11 was made in Korea, Romania and Uzbekistan as the Daewoo Tico, and in China by Anchi.
In 1994 the CA71 Alto was replaced for European consumption by the Maruti-built version of the Cervo Mode, which was sold as the Alto until 2002.
The HA12 is made in India as the Maruti Alto (in a longer and wider form with 796- or 1061-cc engines, with 5 doors), and this was exported to Europe as the Suzuki Alto from 2002. It is also made by Pak Suzuki in Pakistan, and was formerly made by Chevrolet in Colombia.
The current Alto is exported with a 996-cc engine producing 65 hp (48 kW).
Thus the European Suzuki Altos are really:
1979-84: SS40 Altos with 796-cc engine
1984-94: CA71 Altos (coded SB308) and CA91 (also coded SB308) with 796-cc 3-cylinder F8B engine developing approximately 34 hp (25 kW), with 4-speed manual or 2-speed automatic transmission.
1994-2002: Maruti Zens (based on the Cervo Mode), with 993-cc engine.
2002- ? : Maruti Altos (based on the HA12 Alto), with 1061-cc engine.
2009 to date Maruti Suzuki A-Star, with 996-cc engine.
The Suzuki Alto European market version of the Maruti Suzuki A-Star was unveiled at the 2008 Paris Motor Show. It was developed to be a global car and will be made at Maruti Suzuki's plant in Manesar, Haryana, India. It is stylistically based on the Suzuki A-Star Concept.The Alto was conceived as a response to high petrol prices and global warming. The vehicle’s emissions will be only 103g of CO2/km. It will be an eco-friendly car priced from £6,795 OTR. The Maruti Suzuki A-Star is also produced for the Nissan, its version is called Nissan Pixo.


Suzuki Alto GoGet Share Car in Sydney, Australia
The GoGet car share scheme provides 2009 model Suzuki Altos as part of its fleet of share cars in Australia.
The locally-made versions of the various Altos have had long production lives, and have sometimes won great popularity, as with the Maruti 800. In particular the CA71 generation has been produced in many countries, and can frequently be seen being offered as a cheap city car among several more newly-designed products.

Source:wikipedia

Maruti 800


Maruti 800 is a city car manufactured by Maruti Suzuki in India. It is a rebadged version of an old model of the Suzuki Alto. Over 2.5 million Maruti 800's have been sold since its launch in 1984. The same car is sold in Pakistan as the Suzuki Mehran with a much older 1980s era Suzuki SS80 carburetor based engine.

History

Maruti 800
It used to be the best selling car in India until 2004, the Maruti Alto upon its launch took that title. It is also exported to a number of countries in South Asia including Bangladesh and Sri Lanka, and to some South American markets (as Chile, sold as Suzuki Maruti), and was available in selected European markets between 1988 and 1992, sold as the Suzuki Maruti. In Morocco it is currently sold as Suzuki Maruti (as of March 2008). The car comes in different versions including one with air conditioning and one without. It was launched in December 1984 with almost 100% imported components.



Changes

To munsiyari on a Maruti, Uttarakhand Himalayas
The 800 has undergone some minor face lifts but overall it still remains the same as it was in 1984. The car has reported slipping sales in recent times, mainly due to the introduction of the Alto at a comparable price. The car produces approximately 37 bhp (28 kW; 38 PS) of power and runs on 12 inch wheels. Curb weight is 650 kg (1,433 lb) and 4 passengers (including the driver) fit in. Top speed is in the region of 125 km/h (78 mph) and the car is known[who?] to deliver fuel economy better than 20 km/l (47 mpg)[clarification needed] on clear and plain roads.[citation needed] Maruti Suzuki had earlier launched a version with a 4 valves per cylinder engine producing 45 bhp (34 kW; 46 PS) coupled with a 5-speed manual transmission (currently found in the Suzuki Alto) but discontinued it after a couple of years.
A Euro III emission compliant version of the car was released in 2005 to meet Indian emissions regulations. An LPG version of the vehicle was also released in 2008. As of September 2009, the company has yet to reach a decision regarding the manufacture of a Euro IV compliant version of the vehicle due because it would increase the retail price. However even stricter emissions regulations which come into effect by April 2010, would mandate Euro IV compliance in major Indian cities including Delhi, Mumbai, Hyderabad and Bangalore and 2015–2016 for the remainder of the country.The car will be phased out in 2010.
The Maruti 800 is still[when?] popularly hailed in India as "the smallest car in production" due to its relatively tightly spaced interior.[citation needed] Its main competitor is the cheaper Tata Nano (123,000 compared to 184,641 Rupees) which has an 8 percent smaller exterior size and a 23 percent larger interior space.


Proposed phasing out

Maruti Suzuki is planning a phase out of Maruti 800 beginning in April 2010. Maruti Suzuki does not have plans to upgrade it to Euro IV or BS IV emission norms. Starting April 2010, Maruti will stop selling the car in 13 major cities – the four metros and 9 other cities including Kanpur, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Pune, Ahmedabad, Agra and Surat, where government has made it mandatory for the vehicles sold to be Euro IV compliant. Maruti 800 will be sold in other cities until 2015–16.
Another reason cited is the model's declining sales. Maruti 800 sales are down by 55% in the 10 months ending in January 2010 with the company selling only 27,088 cars during the period.

Source:wikipedia

Tata Nano

Tata Nano is a rear-engined, four-passenger city car built by Tata Motors, aimed primarily at the Indian market. The car has a fuel efficiency of around 26 kilometres per litre (73 mpg-imp; 61 mpg-US) on the highway and around 22 kilometres per litre (62 mpg-imp; 52 mpg-US) in the city. It debuted at the 9th annual Auto Expo on January 10, 2008, at Pragati Maidan in New Delhi, India.The Nano had its commercial launch on March 23, 2009, and a booking period from April 9 to April 25, generating more than 200,000 bookings for the car.The cars started to be delivered to customers after July 17, 2009,with a starting price of Rs 100,000, which is approximately equal to UK£1,360 or US$2,160 as of December 2009. This is cheaper than the Maruti 800, its main competitor and next cheapest Indian car priced at Rs 184,641 ($3,988 U.S.). Tata had sought to produce the least expensive production car in the world — aiming for a starting price of Rs 100,000 (approximately US$2,000 as of June 2009).
In early 2008 the news magazine Newsweek identified the Nano as a part of a "new breed of 21st-century cars" that embody "a contrarian philosophy of smaller, lighter, cheaper" and portend a new era in inexpensive personal transportation — and potentially, "global gridlock". The Wall Street Journal confirmed a global trend toward small cars, which includes the Nano.
"Nano" means "small" in Gujarati, the language of the founders of the Tata Group. "Nano" from the SI prefix for one-billionth is derived from the Greek νᾶνος, meaning dwarf, and is sometimes used to mean "small" in colloquial English.


History



Nano
The introduction of the Nano received media attention due to its targeted low price. The Financial Times reported: "If ever there were a symbol of India’s ambitions to become a modern nation, it would surely be the Nano, the tiny car with the even tinier price-tag. A triumph of homegrown engineering, the $2,200 (€1,490, £1,186) Nano encapsulates the dream of millions of Indians groping for a shot at urban prosperity." The car is expected to boost the Indian economy, create entrepreneurial-opportunities across India,as well as expand the Indian car market by 65%. The car was envisioned by Ratan Tata, Chairman of the Tata Group and Tata Motors, who has described it as an eco-friendly "people's car". Nano has been greatly appreciated by many sources and the media for its low-cost and eco-friendly initiatives which include using compressed-air as fuel and an electric-version (E-Nano). Tata Group is expected to mass-manufacture the Nano, particularly the electric-version, and, besides selling them in India, to also export them worldwide.
Critics of the car have questioned its safety in India (where reportedly 90,000 people are killed in road-accidents every year), and have also criticised the pollution that it would cause (including criticism by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change chairman Rajendra Pachauri). However, Tata Motors has promised that it would definitely release Nano's eco-friendly models alongside the gasoline-model.
The Nano was originally to have been manufactured at a new factory in Singur, West Bengal, but increasingly violent protests forced Tata to pull out October 2008. (See Singur factory pullout below.) Currently, Tata Motors is reportedly manufacturing Nano at its existing Pantnagar (Uttarakhand) plant and another plant has been proposed has also agreed to match all the incentives offered by West Bengal government. The upcoming plant at Sanand, Ahmedabad is to release the first lot of cars on 1 May 2010.




Design

Rear

A Tata Nano in silver
Ratan Tata, the Chairman of Tata Motors, began development of the world's least cost production car in 2003, inspired by the number of Indian families with two-wheeled rather than four-wheeled vehicles.The Nano's development has been tempered by the company's success in producing the low cost 4 wheeled Ace truck in May 2005.
Contrary to speculation that the car might be a simple four-wheeled auto rickshaw, The Times of India reported the vehicle is "a properly designed and built car".The Chairman is reported to have said, "It is not a car with plastic curtains or no roof — it's a real car."
To achieve its design goals, Tata refined the manufacturing process, emphasized innovation and sought new design approaches from suppliers.The car was designed at Italy's Institute of Development in Automotive Engineering — with Ratan Tata requesting certain changes, such as the elimination of one of two windscreen wipers. Many components of the Nano are made in Germany by Bosch, such as fuel injection, brake system, Value Motronic ECU, ABS and other technologies.
The Nano has 21% more interior space (albeit mostly as headroom, due to its tall stance) and an 8% smaller exterior compared to its closest rival, the Maruti 800. Tata offered the car in three versions: the basic Tata Nano Std; the CX; and the LX. The CX and LX versions each have air conditioning, power windows, and central locking. Tata has set its initial production target at 250,000 units per year.



Cost cutting features
The Nano's trunk does not open. Instead, the rear seats can be folded down to access the boot.
It has a single windscreen wiper instead of the usual pair.
It has no power steering.
The base model has only three lug nuts on the wheels instead of the usual four.
The base model has only one side view mirror.
Some use of plastic and glue in place of welded steel
Manually operated side windows
Air conditioning/heating not part of base model
Airbags not part of base model
Engine is much smaller (623 cc)than the other cars but is suitable for city driving.


Price
Wikinews has related news: World's least cost car launched in India, will go on sale in April
Tata initially targeted the vehicle as "the least expensive production car in the world" — aiming for a starting price of 100,000 rupees or approximately US$2000 (using exchange rate as of 22 March 2009)  6 years ago,[when?] despite rapidly rising material prices at the time.
As of August 2008, material costs had risen from 13% to 23% over the car’s development, and Tata faced the choice of:
introducing the car with an artificially low price through government subsidies and tax-breaks
forgoing profit on the car
using vertical-integration to artificially boost profits on cars at the expense of their materials industries
partially using inexpensive polymers or biodegradable plastics instead of a full metal-body
raising the price of the car



Model versions

Base model
At its launch the Nano was available in three trim levels:
the basic Tata Nano Std priced at 123,000 Rupees has no extras;
the deluxe Tata Nano CX at 151,000 Rupees has air conditioning;
the luxury Tata Nano LX at 172,000 Rupees has air conditioning, power windows, fabric seats and central locking
the Nano Europa, European version of the Tata Nano has all of the above plus a larger body, bigger 3-cylinder engine, anti-lock braking system (ABS) and meets European crash standards and emission norms.
The base model will have fixed seats, except for the driver's, which will be adjustable, while the deluxe and luxury models will get air conditioning and body coloured bumpers.




Technical specifications

The interior
According to Tata Motors, the Nano is a 35 PS (26 kW; 35 hp) car with a 624 cc rear engine and rear wheel drive, and has a fuel economy of 4.55 L/100 km (22 km/L, 51.7 mpg (US), 62 mpg (UK)) under city road conditions, and 3.85 L/100 km on highways (26 km/L, 61.1 mpg (US), 73.3 mpg (UK)). It is the first time a two-cylinder non-opposed petrol engine will be used in a car with a single balance shaft.Tata Motors has reportedly filed 34 patents related to the innovations in the design of Nano, with the powertrain accounting for over half of them.The project head, Girish Wagh has been credited with being one of the brains behind Nano's design.
Much has been made of Tata's patents pending for the Nano. Yet during a news conference at the New Delhi Auto Expo, Ratan Tata pointed out none of these is revolutionary or represents earth-shaking technology. He said most relate to rather mundane items such as the two-cylinder engine’s balance shaft, and how the gears were cut in the transmission.
Though the car has been appreciated by many sources, including Reuters due to "the way it has tweaked existing technologies to target an as-yet untapped segment of the market", yet it has been stated by the same sources that Nano is not quite "revolutionary in its technology", just low in price. Moreover, technologies which are expected of the new and yet-to-be-released car include a revolutionary compressed-air fuel system and an eco-friendly electric-version,[26] technologies on which Tata is reportedly already working, though no official incorporation-date for these technologies in the new car has been released.
According to Tata, the Nano complies with Bharat Stage-III (similar to Euro-III) and can also meet Euro-IV emission standards. Ratan Tata also said, 'The car has passed the full-frontal crash and the side impact crash'.Tata Nano passed the required 'homologation’ tests with Pune-based Automotive Research Association of India (ARAI).This means that the car has met all the specified criteria for roadworthiness laid out by the government including emissions or noise & vibration and can now ply on Indian roads. Tata Nano managed to score 23.6 km per litre during its ‘homologation’ tests with ARAI.This makes Tata Nano the most fuel efficient car in India. Nano will be the first car in India to display the actual fuel mileage figures it recorded at ARAI’s tests on its windshield. According to ARAI in the tests the Nano conformed to Euro IV emission standards which will come into effect in India in 2010, yet it was only homologated to the Euro III level.


Rear mounted engine
The use of a rear mounted engine to help maximize interior space makes the Nano similar to the original Fiat 500, another technically innovative "people's car". A concept vehicle similar in styling to the Nano, also with rear engined layout was proposed by the UK Rover Group in the 1990s to succeed the original Mini but was not put into production. Once the project was taken over by BMW, the new Mini was much larger and technically conservative. The independent, and now-defunct, MG Rover Group later based their Rover CityRover on the Tata Indica.
Tata is also reported to be contemplating offering a compressed air engine as an option.
Engine: 2 cylinder petrol with Bosch multi-point fuel injection (single injector) all aluminium 33 horsepower (25 kW) 624 cc (38 cu in)
Value Motronic engine management platform from Bosch
2 valves per cylinder overhead camshaft
Compression ratio: 9.5:1
bore × stroke: 73.5 mm (2.9 in) × 73.5 mm (2.9 in)
Power: 35 PS (26 kW; 35 hp) @ 5250 rpm
Torque: 48 N·m (35 ft·lbf) @ 3000 +/-500 rpm
Layout and Transmission Rear wheel drive
4-speed manual transmission
Steering mechanical rack and pinion w/o servo
Turning radius: 4 metres
Performance Acceleration: 0-60 km/h (37 mph): 8 seconds
Maximum speed: 105 km/h (65 mph)[2]
Fuel efficiency (overall): 23.6 kilometres per litre (4.24 litres per 100 kilometres (66.6 mpg-imp; 55.5 mpg-US))
Body and dimensions Seat belt: 4
Trunk capacity: 150 L (5.3 cu ft)
Suspension, Tires & Brakes Front brake: 180 mm drum
Rear brake: 180 mm drum
Front track: 1,325 mm (52.2 in)
Rear track: 1,315 mm (51.8 in)
Ground clearance: 180 mm (7.1 in)
Front suspension: McPherson strut with lower A arm
Rear suspension: Independent coil spring
12-inch wheels
Supplier Part/system
Texspin Clutch Bearings
Bosch Oxygen sensor, Gasoline injection system (diesel will follow), starter, alternator, brake system
Continental AG Gasoline fuel supply system, fuel level sensor
Caparo Inner structural panels
HSI AUTO Static sealing systems (Weather Strips)
Delphi Instrument cluster
Denso Windshield wiper system (single motor and arm)
FAG Kugelfischer Rear-wheel bearing
Ficosa Rear-view mirrors, interior mirrors, manual and CVT shifters, washer system
Freudenberg Engine sealing
GKN Driveshafts
INA Shifting elements
ITW Deltar Outside and inside door handles
Johnson Controls Seating
Mahle Camshafts, spin-on oil filters, fuel filters and air cleaners
Saint-Gobain Glass
TRW Brake system
Ceekay Daikin/Valeo Clutch sets
Vibracoustic Engine mounts
Visteon Air induction system
ZF Friedrichshafen AG Chassis components, including tie rods
Behr HVAC for the luxury version
Dürr Lean Paint Shop



Variants
Tata Nano Europa, for Europe
Diesel
A website has reported that the Tata Nano might be made available with a 690 cc diesel engine by September 2010. Tata motors have not confirmed this yet have hinted that a diesel version will be introduced in the future. "As of now the Diesel variant is not offered. It will be offered only in Petrol now"


Compressed-air engine
Tata Motors is working with a French firm on using compressed air as an energy source. The company has tied up with Moteur Development International (MDI) for this purpose.
[edit]Electric drivetrain or electric-version
Tata is also believed to be making an electric version of the Nano, called the E-Nano (reportedly with attached or sideby solar panels as well)


Hybrid
Leftlanenews reported that "a hybrid version [of Tata Nano] is also likely, although it is not yet known whether the electric motor will be paired with a gasoline or diesel version."



Nano Europa
Tata Motors unveiled a version of the Nano mini-car called the Nano Europa at the 2009 Geneva Motor Show. The car will be coming to mainland Europe and the UK and will have a number of improvements over the standard Nano. The Nano Europa has an increased wheelbase, a new 3-cylinder engine and improved interiors and exteriors. The Nano Europa will be more expensive, heavier, and less fuel efficient than the standard Nano with prices said to be around the US$ 6000 mark. The Nano Europa was heavily modified to meet EU safety and emission standards.



Tata Nano EV
In 2010, at Geneva Motor Show, Tata unveiled the EV-version car uses super-polymer lithium-ion batteries and has a range of 80 miles (130 km),  which might well turn out to be the "world's cheapest electric car" which is more eco-friendly and has many enthusiasts and media for its support. It's supposed to be as cheap as the conventional combustion version (gasoline). Tata is making the Nano compliant with export market regulations and plans to export such a car worldwide, particularly to the UK and the rest of continental Europe, the US (approx. $5,000 ) ,and Australia.
The Economic Times reported that the "electric Nano" "would still make good sense for economic, clean and green personal mobility in countries around the world." According to the Hamburg-based newspaper, Auto Bild, the E-Nano would be built in cooperation with the Norwegian electric car specialist, Miljøbil Grenland AS.



Expectations

According to one report, India as well as some European nations, have great expectations from the Nano and are keenly awaiting it, especially the electric version of the Nano, making it in all probability the "world's cheapest electric car" officially on record. The car itself is expected to boost the Indian Economy as well as expand the Indian car market by 65%, according to rating agency CRISIL.
The Nano, already in production, has already been listed in the Guinness Book of World Records as the world's lease cost production car.
India's leading automotive portal Carwale.com tested the Tata Nano for more than 7,000 kms across the Golden Quadrilateral project. The principal sponsor of the event - Gulf Oil also successfully tested its range of Engine and Gearbox Oil on this run.
[edit]Potential effect on Indian economy
The Economic Times quotes:

Tata Nano’s launch could expand the Indian car market by 65%, according to rating agency CRISIL. The low price makes the car affordable for families with incomes of Rs 1 lakh [100,000] per annum, the agency said. The increase in the market is expected to push up car sales by 20% over the previous year. “The unveiling of Tata Nano, the cheapest car in the world, triggers an important event in the car market. Based on the statement by company officials, CRISIL Research estimates the consumer price of the car at around Rs 1.3 lakh. This brings down the cost of ownership of an entry level car in India by 30%,” the company said in a report.




Comparison to the Model T
Many have compared the Nano with Henry Ford's Model T launched exactly 100 years earlier, in 1908. While the Model T initially cost $850 (equivalent to $20,091 today), Ford refined the assembly line process and by the 1920s, the price of Ford's Model T had fallen to $290 (equivalent to $3,191 today), comparable to the release price of the Nano at US$2,171 as of October 2009.
Livemint said:

Ford Motor Co. is rich because Henry Ford used the assembly-line to produce the Model T in 1908. Ratan Tata is a late entrepreneur, making the Nano in 2008.
India is 100 years behind. But we are waking up to the possibility of catching up. I just hope our planners wake up soon.

Times of India also compared the Nano to the Model T:

This raises the question: How have the Tatas accomplished such a task? Pursuing this question a fascinating story unfolds that reminds one of Henry Ford's Model T that was built exactly one hundred years ago (September 1908). Ford wanted to make a car for the multitude, not for the elite, with the best material and the best design that the technology of his time could devise, and he wanted to make it, above all, at a price that was affordable. This is the example that Ratan Tata has followed with determination. When he announced the price of his car in an interview to the Financial Times during the Geneva Motor Show, his colleagues were 'aghast', but he had set his goal.

Tata Motors in 2009 announced that they are going to bring the Tata Nano to the United States sometime in 2011. In order for it to meet U.S. safety and emissions standards the roof would have to be reinforced among other changes in the headlight pattern etc. The price tag would go up from $2,500 sold in India to around $8,000. There is talk that the U.S. version will get a larger displacement engine but much of the information is proprietary and Tata Motors had not officially released any of the details yet.




Singur factory pullout

Main article: Tata Nano Singur controversy
After much speculation, Tata Motors announced on May 19, 2006 that it will be manufacturing Tata Nano from Singur, West Bengal. However, within a week protests were started by a few farmers in the area against the acquisition of their lands by Tata. The cause was taken up by Mamata Banerjee, the leader of Trinamool Congress. The situation escalated with Tatas threatening to pull out, and disruption of compensation for farmers who had volunteered to sell their land by anti-acquisition activists. This was followed by a state-wide bandh by Trinamool Congress in October. The government banned political parties from holding meetings or processions at Singur and installed a huge police force there. There was widespread violence in the clashes between the police and the farmers on December 2, 2006.
On December 4, 2006 Mamata Banerjee entered into a hunger strike. A 48-hour strike was later called by her to protest the death of Tapasi, a Save Farmland Committee campaigner, whose burnt body was found at the Nano plant site in Singur. Two CPM activists were later convicted and sentenced to life imprisonment for the murder. On the 24th day of her strike, Banerjee was given oxygen support and finally called off her fast after appeals from the then President Abdul Kalam and Prime Minister Manmohan Singh.
As the protests over the land continued in 2007, Ratan Tata accused that the competitors had a role in the controversy. The acquisition of land was initially criticised in February 2007, but later approved by the Calcutta High Court in 2008. As political unrest and rains hampered the construction, Tata Motors delayed the launch of Nano to September 2008.
Violence continued throughout 2008  and on September 2, 2008, Tata Motors announced that they have suspended work at Singur.On October 2, 2008 Tata Motors announced that they are pulling out of Singur.On October 7, 2008, it was announced that the Chief Minister of Gujarat, Narendra Modi had signed an MoU with Tata Motors for allocating land for Nano factory in Sanand in Ahmedabad district of Gujarat.



Criticism

Questions of safety
The Nano has an all sheet-metal body made from Japanese and Korean steel, with safety features such as crumple zones, intrusion-resistant doors, seat-belts, strong seats and anchorages, and the rear tailgate glass bonded to the body. Tires are tubeless. However, some concerns regarding passenger safety were brushed away by the results of 40% offset crash test at 56 kph and the side-impact tests at the MIRA crash test facility in Europe, which were performed on a substantially modified vehicle with additional structure and reinforcements in the body and strengthening in the doors, representative of a planned European export version, which will be substantially larger and more expensive.


Mass motorisation
As the Nano was conceived and designed around introducing the automobile to a sector of the population who are currently using eco-friendly bicycles and motorcycles, environmentalists are concerned that its extraordinarily low price might lead to mass motorization in countries like India and therefore possibly aggravate pollution as well as increase the demand for oil. The ecology focused German newspaper die tageszeitung feels that such concerns are "inappropriate" as the Tata Nano has lower emissions compared to the average Volkswagen, and that developing countries shouldn't be denied the right to motorized mobility when industrialized countries should be looking to reduce their emissions and usage of cars. Die Welt reports that the car conforms with environmental protection, and will have the lowest emissions in India.
In crowded metropolitan cities like Mumbai, Ratan Tata has conceived a scheme to only offer the Nano to those individuals who do not have an automobile already. The Nano will also replace many overloaded and worn-out two-stroke polluting vehicles, both two and three-wheeled. According to Anumita Roychowdhury, associate director of the Centre for Science and Environment in New Delhi, "the low-cost cars will be disastrous" in the current policy and regulatory framework.


Used car market effects
The Nano is alleged to have severely affected the used car market in India, as many Indians opt to wait for the Nano's release rather than buying used cars, such as the Maruti 800 (a rebadged older version of the Suzuki Alto), which is considered as the Nano's nearest competitor. Sales of new Maruti 800s have dropped by 20%, and used ones by 30% following the unveiling of the Nano. As one automotive journalist summarises; “People are asking themselves—and us—why they should pay, say, 250,000 Rupees for a Maruti Alto, when they can wait and get a brand new Nano for less in a few months’ time, a car that is actually bigger”.


Post Sales Issues
In March 2010 a Tata Nano caught fire when driven from dealership to the home of its owner Satish Sawant. . Tata Motors responded regarding the fire.
"The incident in Mumbai does not require a recall because it is a stray one-off incident due to a problem in that particular unit,” wrote Debasis Ray, the head of corporate communications at Tata, in an e-mail message. “We are trying to understand what may have caused it. There are close to 30,000 Tata Nanos on the road now and increasing. There are no design or manufacturing lacunae in the cars.“
This case is currently under investigation, Tata Motors have not ruled out the possibility of sabotage.
There have been three cases where Nano's steering wheel assembly produces black smoke, which was attributed to fire retardant material used in the steering column. Tata Motors has since replaced the OEM supplying the fire retardant material as well as the steering column assembly in the sold vehicles.


Competitors

Main article: Economy car
Rival car makers including Bajaj Auto, Fiat, General Motors, Ford Motor, Hyundai and Toyota Motor have all expressed interest in building small cars in India that are affordable to more middle-class consumers in emerging markets. The bulk of demand there is for small cars because people are much more sensitive to fuel prices.
Honda and Toyota are leading the way on so called cleaner gasoline-electric hybrids, and some environmentalists argue getting prices down on these technologies is where efforts should be concentrated. Inexpensive and eco-friendly electric-cars like Tara Tiny (which has an engine producing 4 hp compared to Nano's 33 hp), Oreva Super (both reportedly even cheaper than Tata Nano) and REVA pose even more significant danger to Nano.
[edit]Awards

Tata Nano won the Indian Car of the Year 2010 award at Business Standard Motoring Awards 2010
Tata Nano won the 'car of the year' of Bloomberg UTV-Autocar awards

Source:wikipedia