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Wednesday, May 12, 2010
Robin des Bois, Robin Hood
Its English name Robin Hood literally means "Robin Hood", not "Robin Hood", as paronymy of hood with wood has often been suggested 1, depending on the version Anglo-Saxon. Robin hood is also maybe a character oldest of the British Isles: Hood = c'hoad in Old Breton, actually means "wood" and is one of the oldest names of European family (Walt, Silva Coat Dubois ...). The notorious Hood would be an added retrospectively by the Anglo-Saxon legend to explain the English name "Robin Hood"
History and legend
Statue of Robin Hood in Nottingham
The first handwriting of Robin Hood is in the farmer Peter ( Piers Plowman ) by William Langland ( 1377), where Sloth, a lazy priest, said: "I know the rhymes of Robin Hood." Three years later, Scottish chronicler John Fordun wrote that the character of Robin Hood in the ballads "likes better than all others."
Many versions of the printed ballads appear in early xvi th century when the printing is taking its first booms in England . Robin is described as a gentleman , which at that time means a trader or an independent farmer. Only at the end of the century it acquired a noble title and took the name "Robin of Loxley "or" Robert Fitz OOTH, Earl of Huntington .
His association with romantic Marianne (or "Marion", sometimes called "Matilda") dates from this period of time. The name "Marion" comes from a shepherdess lyrical French poet Adam de la Halle , the Jeu de Robin et Marion (circa 1283). Apart from names, yet nothing can establish a correspondence between the two characters.
At the end of the xvi th century , the story of Robin Hood back in time to be around the years 1190when King Richard the Lion Heart went to the Third Crusade . In the xvii th century , Robin Hood appears in The Sad Shepherd ( The Sad Shepherd , 1641) by Ben Jonson . Then, in xix th century , Robin Hood became a hero of the novel Ivanhoe ( 1819) of Walter Scott . The idea that Robin is a rebel Saxon warrior lords Norman date from this period.
Was accused of plagiarism Thomas Love Peacock (1785-1866) for the famous Maid Marian , published three years after Ivanhoe . Peacock has always maintained that his book was written in 1818, a year before the publication of one of Scott. The influence of Rabelais is sensitive, especially through the character of Friar Tuck.
Around the character of Robin, many inconsistencies have crept in over the years. It is said that Robin Lord of Loxley (head of the County of Hallamshire ) was dispossessed of his land by the Sheriff of Nottingham and declared outlaw . The sheriff is indeed in the early ballads, where Robin finally beheading him, but there is no question of his land. His other enemies are a bounty hunter named Guy of Gisbourne , and rich abbots , which are also killed by Robin. But if the old ballads mention of a loan granted by a Robin Knight unlucky, they say nothing about a redistribution of plundering the poor. It is also said that Robin is the green Sherwood Forest in Nottinghamshire, while the ballads do evolve to Barnsdale , in York County , or about 80 miles north.
From the Middle Ages to today, songs and ballads, plays and musical comedies, movies and television series have created a myth in tune with the times, subject to the passage of many ideological manipulation, as illustrated by the example of character Marianne, who now plays the role of a warrior, sometimes that of a passive girl, or that of Robin Hood himself, sometimes presented as a mere bandit, sometimes as a resistance fighter who fight for a just cause.
Towards 1283: First mention of Marion. Adam de la Halle : Game of Robin and Marion.
Towards 1377: First mention of Robin ( Robyn Hood ). William Langland : Piers Plowman ( Piers Plowman )
Towards 1450: First known ballads and first components.
Towards 1495: Wynken De Worde Printer publishes A Gest of Robyn Hode , epic composed from several old ballads.
1765: Old anonymous ballad, undated, "Robin Hood and Guy of Guisborne, collected by Thomas Percy in Reliques of ancient English poetry.
1795: First compilation of important old ballads. Joseph Ritson: Robin Hood: A Collection of all the Ancient Poems, Songs and Ballads, now extant, Relative to That Celebrated Outlaw.
1819: The first great historical novel. Walter Scott : Ivanhoe.
1822: Novels of Thomas Love Peacock : Maid Marian.
1838: First great journalistic drama. Pierce Egan the Younger: Robin Hood and Little John: or, The Merry Men of Sherwood Forest . Alexandre Dumas will draw the material for two novels: The Prince of Thieves (1872) and Robin Hood Outlaw (1873).
1883: The first great classic of children's literature. Howard Pyle: The Merry Adventures of Robin Hood of Great Renown in Nottinghamshire.
1891: First successful operetta U.S.. Reginald DeKoven (music) and Harry B. Smith (book): Robin Hood.
1908First film. British silent film directed by Percy Stow: Robin Hood and His Merry Men.
1936: First comic. Issued in Canada in The Toronto Telegram. Ted McCall (screenplay) and Charles Snelgrove (drawings): Robin Hood and Company.
The companions of Robin Hood
The henchmen called Robin English, " Merry Men "and in French, the" Merry Companions . These are:
Friar Tuck, Monk ( Friar Tuck );
Marianne's girlfriend Robin ( Marian , Matilda Marion );
Little John , one of the most famous companions of Robin ( Little John );
Will Scarlet, Robin's nephew ( Will Scarlett ).
Robin Hood (1824), opera by Weber , libretto Castil-Blaze (see Der Freischütz ).
Movies and television series
Among the many interpretations of the myth of Robin Hood, here are some works that have been broadcast in French:
Movie Poster Robin Hood with Douglas Fairbanks in 1922
1912 : Robin Hood of Étienne Arnaud and Herbert Blaché with Robert Frazer and Barbara Tennant.
1913 : Robin Hood ( Robin Hood and Maid Marian ) of Theodore Marston , with William Russell and Gerda Holmes.
1922 : Robin des Bois ( Robin Hood ), directed by Allan Dwan , with Douglas Fairbanks and Wallace Beery.
1938 : The Adventures of Robin Hood ( The Adventures of Robin Hood ), of Michael Curtiz , with Errol Flynn and Olivia de Havilland.
1946 : The Son of Robin Hood (The Bandit of Sherwood Forest ), of George Sherman and Henry Levin, with Cornel Wilde and Anita Louise.
1948 : The Prince of Thieves of Howard Bretherton , with Jon Hall and Patricia Morison
1950 : Revenge of the Beggars ( Rogues of Sherwood Forest ) by Douglas Gordon , with John Derek and Diana Lynn.
1952 : Robin Hood and his merry men (The Story of Robin Hood and His Merrie Men ) by Ken Annakin , with Richard Todd and Joan Rice
1954 : The Revenge of Robin Hood (The Men of Sherwood Forest) of Val Guest , with Don Taylor and Eileen Moore.
1955to 1960 : Robin Hood ( The Adventures of Robin Hood ), British television series with Richard Greene
1958 : Robin Hood, Don Juan ( The Son of Robin Hood ] of George Sherman , with al Hedison and June Laverick.
1958 : Robin Hood Daffy , cartoon Chuck Jones.
1959 : The black arrow of Robin Hood ( Capitan Fuoco ) from Carlo Campogalliani , with Lex Barker and Anna Maria Ferrero.
1960 : The Oath of Robin Hood (Sword of Sherwood Forest) by Terence Fisher , with Richard Greene, , Sarah Branch , and Peter Cushing.
1961 : Robin Hood and the Pirates ( Robin Hood ei pirati ) by Giorgio Simonelli , with Lex Barker and Jackie Lane.
1966 : Robin Rocket ( Rocket Robin Hood ) animated series.
1967 : The Challenge for Robin Hood (A Challenge for Robin Hood) by CM Pennington-Richards , with Barrie Ingham and Peter Blythe.
1970 : Robin Hood magnificent ( It Magnifico Robin Hood ) by Roberto B. Montero , with George Martin and Sheyla Rosin.
1971 : The Great Ride of Robin Hood of Calvin Jackson Padget , with Giuliano Gemma
1973 : Robin des Bois ( Robin Hood ) by Wolfgang Reitherman , version animal; famous cartoon produced by Walt Disney Pictures.
1976 : The Robin and Marian ( Robin and Marian ), where Sean Connery and Audrey Hepburn play the roles of Robin and Marian at the end of their lives.
1980 : Robin, Arrow and karate ( Robin Hood, frecce, fagioli and karate ) from Tonino Ricci , with Alan Steel and Ria de Simone.
1981 : Time Bandits ( Time Bandits ), written and directed by Terry Gilliam , with John Cleese , Sean Connery and Shelley Duvall.
1984- 1986 : Robin of Sherwood with Michael Praed , Judi Trott.
1989 : The amorous adventures of Robin Hood ( The Ribald Tales of Robin Hood ) by Richard Kanter , with Dee Lockwood and Bambi Allen.
1990 : The Adventures of Robin Hood ( Robin Hood No daibôken ) is an animated developed by Japanese studio Tatsunoko Productions.
1991 : Robin Hood: Prince of Thieves ( Robin Hood Prince of Thieves ) by Kevin Reynolds with Kevin Costner, , Alan Rickman , Morgan Freeman, , Christian Slater , Sean Connery and Mary Elizabeth Mastrantonio.
1991 : Robin des Bois ( Robin Hood ) by John Irvin , with Patrick Bergin and Uma Thurman.
1993 : Sacré Robin des Bois , a parody of Mel Brooks.
1997- 1999 : The New Adventures of Robin Hood , with Matthew Porretta , Anna Galvin.
2001 : Princess of Thieves , with Keira Knightley , Stuart Wilson.
2001Robin Hood and his band make an appearance as rescuers annoying in Shrek of William Steig . They have French accents and are defeated by the heroine.
2006 : Robin Hood , with British television series Jonas Armstrong , Lucy Griffiths.
2010 : Robin hood of Ridley Scott with Russell Crowe.
Other adaptations [change]
The name of Robin was taken by the first partner of Batman.
A parody of Robin Hood in the world of Chicago gangsters in Robin and the Seven Hoods (1964) with Sinatra and Dean Martin
The main character in the comic book Green Arrow owes much to Robin Hood.
Video Games: Defender of the crown ; Conquests of the Longbow: The Legend of Robin Hood , Robin Hood - The Legend of Sherwood
The 94 th episode of Star Trek: The Next Generation (Qpidon) directed by Cliff Bole dive team of the Enterprise in a reconstruction of Robin Hood.
In an old version of Warhammer , Bretonnia had the opportunity to include characters borrowed heavily from Robin Hood: outlaw Bertrand, head of the archers of Bergerac, Hugo Petit (which was impressive) and the big Guy (Friar Tuck) .
In the manga French of Mika Pen Dragon , a character called Oud, whose real name is Roby Delokusulai.
In the episode "Death Wish, the Season 3 Kaamelott , a character named Robyn, played by Roland Giraud d