Anders Behring Breivik, born 13 February 1979) is a Norwegian accused mass murderer and the confessed perpetrator of the 2011 attacks in Norway. On 22 July 2011, Breivik bombed the government buildings in Oslo, which resulted in eight deaths. He then carried out a mass shooting at a camp of the Workers' Youth League (AUF) of the Labour Party on the island of Utøya where he killed 69 people, mostly teenagers.
Breivik was diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia by the court-appointed psychiatrists. According to their report, Breivik acted compulsively based on a delusional thought universe. Among other things, he alluded to himself as a future regent of Norway pending a takeover by a Templar-like organization. Imagining himself as regent, his ideas included organizing Norwegians in reservations and using them in breeding projects. Other psychiatrists disagree that he is psychotic or schizophrenic, and on 13 January 2012, after much public pressure, the Oslo district court ordered a second expert panel to evaluate Breivik's mental state. On 10 April 2012 the second psychiatric evaluation was published with the conclusion that Breivik was not psychotic during the attacks and he was not psychotic during their evaluation; rather he is an extreme narcissist.
Breivik's far-right militant ideology is described in a compendium of texts, titled 2083 – A European Declaration of Independence and distributed electronically by Breivik on the day of the attacks. In it he lays out his worldview, which includes support for cultural conservatism, ultranationalism, right-wing populism, Islamophobia, Zionism, anti-feminism, and White nationalism. It also expresses support for paramilitaries such as the Scorpions. It regards Islam and cultural Marxism as the enemy, and argues for the violent annihilation of "Eurabia" and multiculturalism, and the deportation of all Muslims from Europe (culminating in the year 2083) to preserve European Christendom. Breivik wrote that his main motive for committing the atrocities on 22 July was to market this manifesto.
Within hours after the explosion he arrived at Utøya island, the site of a Labour Party youth camp, posing as a police officer and then opened fire on the unarmed adolescents present, reportedly killing 69. The youngest victim was Sharidyn Svebakk-Bøhn of Drammen, who was 14 years old. Another victim was Trond Berntsen, the step-brother of Crown Princess Mette-Marit (the son of Princess Mette-Marit’s late stepfather).
Breivik confessed and stated that the purpose of the attack was to save Norway and Western Europe from a Muslim takeover, and that the Labour Party had to "pay the price" for "letting down Norway and the Norwegian people".
When an armed police SWAT unit from Oslo arrived on the island and confronted him, he surrendered without resistance. After his arrest, he was held by armed police on the island, and interrogated throughout the night, before being moved to a holding cell in Oslo. On the way to his first jail meeting, Breivik's police escort was met with an angry crowd, some of whom shouted "burn in hell" or "traitor", while some used stronger words.
Arrest and preparations for trial
On 25 July 2011 Breivik was charged with violating paragraph 147a of the Norwegian criminal code, "destabilising or destroying basic functions of society" and "creating serious fear in the population", both acts of terrorism under Norwegian law, and ordered held for eight weeks, the first four in solitary confinement, pending further court proceedings. The custody has been extended in subsequent hearings. The indictment was ready in early March. The Director of Public Prosecutions had initially decided to censor the document to the public, leaving out the names of the victims as well as details about their slayings. Due to many reactions this decision was reversed shortly prior to its release. On 30 March Borgarting Court of Appeal announced that it had scheduled the expected appeal case for 15 January 2013. It will be conducted in the same specially constructed court room where the initial criminal case will be tried.
Anders Behring Breivik has been remanded at Ila Prison since his arrest. There he has at his disposal three prison cells. One where he can rest, sleep and watch DVD movies or television, a second is set up for him to use a PC without Internet connection, and in a third cell there is gym equipment that he can use. Only selected prison staff with special qualifications are allowed to work around him, and the prison management aims to not let his presence as a high-security prisoner affect any of the other inmates. Subsequent to the January 2012 lifting of letters and visitors censorship for Breivik he has received a number of inquiries from private individuals, and he has devoted time to writing back to like-minded people. According to one of his attorneys Breivik is curious to learn whether his manifesto has begun to take root in society. Breivik's attorneys in consultation with Breivik are considering to have some of his interlocutors called to witness during the trial. Several media, both Norwegian and international, have requested interviews with Breivik. The first such was canceled by the prison administration following a background check of the journalist in question. A second interview has been agreed to by Breivik, and the prison has requested a background check to be done by the police in the country where the journalist is from. No information has been given about the media organizations in question.
Breivik underwent examination by court-appointed forensic psychiatrists in the autumn of 2011. The psychiatrists diagnosed him with paranoid schizophrenia, concluding that he had developed the disorder over time and was psychotic both when he carried out the attacks and during the observation. He was also diagnosed with abuse of non-dependence-producing substances antecedent of 22 July. The psychiatrists consequently found Breivik to be criminally insane.
According to the report, Breivik displayed inappropriate and blunted affect and a severe lack of empathy. He spoke incoherently in neologisms and had acted compulsively based on a universe of bizarre, grandiose and delusional thoughts. Breivik alluded himself as the future regent of Norway, master of life and death, while calling himself "inordinately loving" and "Europe's most perfect knight since WWII". He was convinced that he was a warrior in a "low intensity civil war" and had been chosen to save his people. To the psychiatrists, Breivik described plans to carry out further "executions of categories A, B and C traitors" by the thousands, themselves included, and to organise Norwegians in reservations for the purpose of selective breeding. Breivik believed himself to be the "knight Justiciar grand master" of a Templar organisation. He was deemed to be suicidal and homicidal by the psychiatrists.
According to his defence attorney, Breivik initially expressed surprise and felt insulted by the conclusions in the report. He later stated that "this provides new opportunities".
In Norway, the outcome of Breivik's competency evaluation has been fiercely debated by mental health experts over the court-appointed psychiatrists' opinion and the country's definition of criminal insanity. An extended panel of experts from the Norwegian Board of Forensic Medicine reviewed the submitted report and approved it "with no significant remarks", whereas the psychiatric medical staff in charge of treating prisoners at Ila Detention and Security Prison did not make any observation that suggested he suffered from either psychosis, depression or was suicidal. Rather he appeared to have personality disorders, according to senior psychiatrist Randi Rosenqvist. Counsels representing families and victims have filed requests that the court orders a second opinion, while the prosecuting authority and Breivik's lawyer do not want new experts to be appointed. He initially refused to cooperate with new psychiatrists. He has later changed his mind and in late February a new period of psychiatric observation, this time more encompassing than the first period, was begun.